From the experimental data given by the previous matrix, the decay process (t [right arrow] b[W.sup.+]), considering the constant |[V.sub.tb]| [approximately equal to] 1, It is more likely to occur than the processes carried out between quarks
of different families.
Distinguished Professor Sheldon Stone says the findings are a first, although matter-antimatter asymmetry has been observed before in particles with strange quarks
or beauty quarks
Here p is momentum and j(x) is a current composed of quarks
and gluon fields with the hadron's quantum numbers.
Called Xi-cc++, the newly detected particle contains two charm quarks
- one of the three known heavy flavors - and one up quark
- a light flavor.
The particles are probably tetraquarks, which are composed of four quarks
tightly bound together, says physicist Tomasz Skwarnicki of Syracuse University in New York, who led the analysis.
We use this modification in calculating the quarks
self-energy for the perturbation interaction with the gluons, then we renormalize the interaction and search for the condition [a.sup.2][p.sup.2] [right arrow] 0 and [a.sup.2][k.sup.2] [right arrow] 0.
International Conference on Quark
Confinement and the Hadron Spectrum (6th: 2004: Villaismius, Italy) Ed.
In the quantities [^.[GAMMA].sub.s.sup.npW], [M.sub.2[gamma]s], the electroweak interactions mediated by Z- and W-bosons and "massive" photons transfer the large momenta [k.sup.2] [approximately greater than] [M.sub.S.sup.2] to a quark
system, so that strong quark-quark interactions die out, and quarks
become asymptotically free in the respective intermediate states.
In theory, quarks
are closely bound within a nucleon connected by gluons to create protons, neutrons and other subatomic particles.
Murray Gell-Mann (see 1953), who had originated the quark
concept, labored to work out the rules governing the combination of quarks
Compared to the up and down quarks
, charm and beauty quarks
are about 1000 times heavier.
But the collective behaviour of quark
matter isn't easy to pin down.