A total of 16 metabolites had a confirmed identity (Table 3), namely, aminoethanol, b-amino isobutyric acid, citric acid, 1,2-dithiane-4,5-diol, ethanedioic acid, glycine, 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid, indole-3-acetic acid, L-threonine, phosphoric acid, pyroglutamic acid
In the hippocampus of mice that ingested theanine (6 mg/kg) in drinking water for 2 weeks, the levels of Glu and pyroglutamic acid
were significantly reduced, and conversely GABA increased (Inoue et al.
Other acids isolated from honey are acetic acid, butyric acid, citric acid, malic acid, formic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid and pyroglutamic acid
, and inorganic acids such as phosphoric and hydrochloric acids.
This study focuses on the enzyme human glutaminyl cyclase (GC) because it begins the cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues into pyroglutamic acid
in the hypothalamus, adrenal medulla, and other parts of the brain.
Furthermore, these proteins are more active than ribonucleases currently available even though the proteins of this invention lack an N-terminal pyroglutamic acid
, which has been found to be necessary for ribonucleolytic activity.
A pyroglutamic acid
(5-oxoproline) level was also markedly elevated (1843 [micro]g/mg of creatinine, 18 times the normal level).
Glutaminyl cyclase cyclizes N-terminal glutamine to pyroglutamic acid
in such peptides as TRH.
Thus, blocking of the N-terminal by addition of pyroglutamic acid
increases the potency of FYRFamide by 10-fold.
The surviving glutamine butyl ester is deaminated in acidic solution to a protonated form of pyroglutamic acid
butyl ester in the electrospray source of the MS/MS.
This assay detects the N-terminal epitope on gastrin-17, where the N-terminal residue is pyroglutamic acid
Hawkinsinuria--identification of quinolacetic acid and pyroglutamic acid
during an acidotic phase.