Products with ingredients extracted from plants, such as puncturevine
(Tribulus terrestris), barrenwort (Epimedium), and valerian are labeled as supplementary foods in some countries but are classified as Chinese herbal medicine in Taiwan.
Sexual effects of puncturevine
(Tribulus terrestris) extract (protodioscin): an evaluation using a rat model.
 reported 38 to 59% reduction in corn yield through interference from field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.), and puncturevine
(Tribulus terrestris L.).
Prasad, "Sexual effects of puncturevine
(Tribulus terrestris) extract (protodioscin): an evaluation using a rat model," Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol.
If you've ever stepped barefoot on a puncturevine
seed pod, you know why this category is included.
Treat it like puncturevine
, and don't let it get started.
It's commonly called a "puncturevine
" or "goathead." Google either term for a full description of the plant.
The key broadleaf weeds controlled include puncturevine
, Canada thistle, Equisetum, perennial pepper-weed, whitetop, yellow starthistle, turkey mullein, and marestail.
Some successes have been dramatic, including substantial control of at least five insect pests (cereal leaf beetle, Rhodesgrass mealybug, pea aphid, alfalfa blotch leafminer, alfalfa weevil) and three weeds (Klamath weed, alligatorweed, puncturevine