While initial reactions after the 2000 election had tended to focus on technological fixes such as eliminating punchcard
and lever voting machines, a consensus emerged subsequently that the issues, and the solutions needed, were more complex and often involved trade-offs among diverse goals.
a higher proportion of the votes from punchcard
counties are thrown
Under HAVA, many electoral districts across the country have purchased electronic-voting machines to replace punchcard
equipment and mechanical voting machines.
The 2002 Help America Vote Act (HAVA) allocated $3.9 billion to replace punchcard
ballots, used widely in Florida in 2000 and Ohio in 2000 and 2004, with electronic touch-screen machines.
Consequently, of the eighty-eight counties in Ohio, sixty-eight, or about 70 percent of the state's voters, will still be using the unreliable punchcard
ballots on November 2.
The original VSS classified systems as punchcard
, optical scan, or DRE and defined separate standards for each.
Despite the bad reputation that the punchcard
received in the 2000 election, the answer to the question is far from clear.
Soon the whole circus was being televised nationally, as election officials peered earnestly at punchcard
, and the c-word not only entered the American vocabulary but overwhelmed it.
Knack and Kropf discovered that, nationwide, 31.9 percent of whites and 31.4 percent of blacks live in counties using punchcard
technology, and that punch cards are more likely to be found in wealthier counties than in poorer ones--in other words, the very opposite of what many Democrats assume.
At the time the United States entered World War II, in 1941, IBM owned 84 percent of German subsidiary Deutsche Hollerith Maschinen (Dehomag for short), which sold the punchcard
technology invented by the engineer Hermann Hollerith in the 1890s.
Watson, a former traveling salesman of organs and sewing machines, started his computing career with a punchcard
accounting system that had been developed for the 1890 census.
But the pay-per-impression model may be about to go the way of the punchcard
. In 1996, Procter & Gamble struck an unusual deal with Yahoo!