The development of puborectalis
muscle was estimated by using the width of the muscle at PC plane.
Which muscles, for example, constitute the levator ani: pubococcygeus, pubovisceral, pubovisceralis, puboperinealis, puboanalis, pubovaginalis, puborectalis
, puborectal, iliococcygeus, ischiococcygeus?
The pubococcygeus muscle is palpated in the direction between 7 and 11 o'clock on the left and 1 and 5 o'clock on the right, and the puborectalis
is deeper and palpated parallel to the ground in the direction of 6 o'clock.
However, avulsion or macrotrauma of the levator (defined as disconnection of the puborectalis
muscle from its insertion on the inferior ramus and pubis), and microtrauma causing pathological overdistension of the levator, are thought to play a role in some types of POP.[18,19] There is currently scant data describing the association between levator morphology and successful pessary use.
They used puborectalis
interposition, sphincteroplasty and perineal body repair.
The probe was gently inserted until the puborectalis
muscle was identified and then withdrawn down the anal canal; images of the puborectalis
, external anal sphincter (EAS), and internal anal sphincter (IAS) were captured.
(3) Functional constipation is due to a lack of coordination between the relaxation of the pelvic floor muscles (puborectalis
muscles) and the muscular movement of abdominal wall necessary for normal defecation.
DRE measures the strength of the striated external sphincter and the lift of the posterior aspectof the levator ani (puborectalis
Resting pressure and voluntary contractions of the anal sphincter complex and puborectalis
muscle were assessed.
Full term ANOC Anococcygeal raphe B Bladder CCM Coccygeus muscle CL Cardinal ligament Cx Coccyx EAS External anal sphincter ICM Iliococcygeus muscle Obt Obturator internus muscle Pb Perineal body PCM Pubococcygeus muscle Pm Perineal membrane PRM Puborectalis
muscle Ps Pubic symphysis PUL Pubourethral ligament R Rectum U Urethra Umb Umbilical ligament USL Uterosacral ligament Ut Uterus V Vagina Table 2: Biomechanical properties of endopelvic fascia constituents.
In an effort to develop safer and less invasive passage of the trocar, or needle, through the retropubic region a transobturator tape was introduced24 which passes through the obturator and puborectalis
muscles, reproducing the natural suspension fascia of the urethra while preserving the retropubic space.
The physiological mechanisms of DD include inability to coordinate abdominal, rectoanal, and pelvic floor muscles during defecation because of causes such as inadequate rectal and/or abdominal propulsive force, impaired anal relaxation (i.e., <20% relaxation of basal resting pressure), or increased anal outlet resistance as a result of paradoxical external anal sphincter or puborectalis