The presence of publication bias
was assessed using funnel plots for body weight and fat weight because these outcome measures contained [greater than or equal to] 10 studies.
has been defined as "what occurs whenever the research that appears in the published literature is systematically unrepresentative of the population of completed studies" (Rothstein et al.
As a preliminary, we first discuss several of the tools that have been proposed for combatting publication bias
and related ills.
Table 3 Assessment of publication bias
for the impact of pomegranate consumption on plasma lipids.
Caption: FIGURE 3: Funnel plot in the meta-analysis demonstrating that there was no obvious indication of publication bias
We used multiple methods to detect publication bias
(Beretvas, 2010), including funnel plot analyses, the trim-and-fill procedure suggested by Duval and Tweedie (2000; Richardson, Abraham, & Bond, 2012), and Rosenthal's (1979) failsafe N.
was assessed by both Egger's test and Begg's test.
This article examines the issue of whether publication bias
is a factor in this emerging research domain.
One aspect of the process that may ultimately influence trust in the literature is an understanding of issues relating to publication bias
It is increasingly apparent that problems such as publication bias
, selective analysis and outcome reporting, and data dredging affect disciplines as remote as clinical medicine, omics, animal studies, economics, social sciences, psychology, and neurosciences.
Extensive recent preclinical literature suggests that stem cell-based therapies may offer promise; however the impact of compromised internal validity and publication bias
means that efficacy is likely to be somewhat lower than reported here," the authors concluded.