Natural infection of sheep and goats with Dictyocaulus filaria and Protostrongylus
rufescens (Nematoda) in Quetta Pakistan.
Also there are other reports of contamination to Protostrongylus rufescent, cystocaulus ocreatus and Muellerius capillaries .
6%) were suffered from Protostrongylus rufescent and finally, of 400 total lungs, 25 cases (6.
5%) were infected to Protostrongylus rufescent, 448 samples (44.
For example, small changes in absolute temperatures can have substantial effects on the transmission dynamics of protostrongylid lungworms and muscleworms (species of Parelaphostrongylus, Protostrongylus, and Umingmakstrongylus), which cycle among the environment, gastropod (slug and snail) intermediate hosts, and ungulate (caribou, muskoxen, thinhorn sheep, moose) definitive hosts (Figure 1).
Climate change and the epidemiology of protostrongylid nematodes in northern ecosystems: Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei and Protostrongylus stilesi in Dall's sheep (Ovis d.
Protostrongylus stilesi (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae): ecological isolation and putative host switching between Dall's sheep and muskoxen in a contact zone.
rufescens, and Muellerius capillaris.
The two other species (Dirofilaria scapiceps and Protostrongylus boughtoni) have indirect life cycles and infect the hocks (ankles) and lungs of hares, respectively (Bartlett 1984, Kralka and Samuel 1984).
Experimental life cycle of Protostrongylus boughtoni (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea), a lungworm of snowshoe hares, Lepus americanus.