Effect of trichloroethylene and its metabolites, dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid, on the methylation and expression of c-Jun and c-Myc protooncogenes
in mouse liver: prevention by methionine.
To determine whether and/or to what extent these agents alter the expression of protooncogenes
, tumor-suppressor genes, or other genes that regulate mitogenesis or apoptosis, tissue samples from a diverse population of individuals need to be analyzed.
 Human genes: EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; TP53, tumor protein p53; ALK, anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase; KRAS, Kirsten ratsarcoma viral oncogene homolog; ERBB2, erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2; BRAF, B-Raf protooncogene
, serine/ threonine kinase.
 Human genes: JAK3, Janus kinase 3; KRAS, V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog; GNAS, GNAS complex locus; AKT1, v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1; APC, adenomatous polyposis coli; MET, met protooncogene
; PIK3CA, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase; RB1, retinoblastoma 1; STK11, serine/threonine kinase 11; TP53, tumor protein p53; SMAD4, SMAD family member 4; ATM, ataxia telangiectasia mutated; IDH1, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (NADP+); NRAS, neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog.
c-kit and c-kit ligand in human disease.
The best characterized tumorigenic molecular changes in FTC are activating point mutations in genes of the protooncogene
family comprising HRAS  (v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog), KRAS (v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog), and NRAS [neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog] and in the PAX8/PPARG (paired box 8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) fusion oncogene rearrangement (3); however, RAS gene mutations (a) occur only in 10%-25% of FTC cases, (b) are also seen in papillary thyroid carcinoma, and (c) occur equally often in FA and FTC (3-5).
Our 2006 Clinical Chemistry report demonstrated that mutation scanning of RET (ret protooncogene
) detects mutations causative of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (3).
The noncontinuous probes with omission of 1-3 nt of the template sequence were designed to mask nontargeted sequence variants such as benign polymorphic sites in RET protooncogene
and the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene (FGFR3)  (3).
Structural analysis of alpha-enolase: mapping the functional domains involved in down-regulation of the c-myc protooncogene
. J Biol Chem 2000;275:5958-65.
For example, identical nearest neighbor changes may occur at different locations in the same amplicon, such as identical base changes at multiple cysteine residues in the RET protooncogene
bcl-2 can selectively rescue neurotrophic factor-dependent neurons from apoptosis.
(6.) Slamon DJ, Godolphin W, Jones LA, Holt JA, Wong SG, Keith DE, Levin WJ, Stuart SG, Udove J, Ullrich A.Studies of the Her-2/neu protooncogene
in human breast and ovarian cancer.