protamine

(redirected from Protamines)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.

protamine

 [pro´tah-min]
any of a class of simple proteins, soluble in water, not coagulated by heat, and precipitated from aqueous solution by addition of alcohol. Protamines neutralize heparin, and protamine sulfate is used as an antidote in heparin overdosage, administered intravenously.

pro·ta·mine

(prō'tă-mēn, -min),
Any of a class of proteins, highly basic because rich in l-arginine and simpler in constitution than the albumins and globulins, etc., found in fish spermatozoa in combination with nucleic acid; the protamines have a histonelike function and are present in mammalian sperm; neutralizes anticoagulant action of heparin; used in the preparation of several long-acting insulin preparations.

protamine

(prō′tə-mēn′, -mĭn) also

protamin

(-mĭn)
n.
Any of a group of arginine-rich proteins that bind to and package DNA in the sperm nucleus. Protamines are used in long-acting formulations of insulin and to neutralize the anticoagulant effects of heparin.

pro·ta·mine

(prō'tă-mēn)
Any of a class of proteins found in fish sperms in combination with nucleic acid; neutralizes anticoagulant action of heparin.
References in periodicals archive ?
They have concluded that the Tamoxifen citrate reduces the level of sperm chromatin condensation by decreasing testicular levels of TP1, TP2, protamine 1 and response element modulator-[tau] (CREMs) proteins, which are effective in chromatin compaction in the spermatogenesis process, and also TX can affect the expression of these genes in both levels of transcription and post-translational modifications (34).
Altered protamine 2 expression is uncommon in donors of known fertility, but common among men with poor fertilizing capacity, and may reflect other abnormalities of spermiogenesis.
(62), (64) Bu model toroid stkistirilmastyla ve toroidlerin istiflenmesiyle protamine bagli DNA'nin hasardan korunurken, linker (baglayict) bolgelerin ve histona bagh DNA bolgelerinin endonukleazlarin olusturdugu DNA hasanna maruz kalcligini gostermektedir.
Histona bagh kromatini, protamine bagli kromatinden ayirmak icin micrococcal ntikleaz sindirimi ve jel purifikasyon yontemi kullanmislardir.
Chromomycin A3 and protamines compete for the same binding sites in the DNA.
Scrotal heat stress induces altered sperm chromatin structure associated with a decrease in protamine disulfide bonding in the stallion.
During chromatin packaging endogenous nucleases (topoisomearse II) are activated to create and ligate nicks that facilitate replacement of histones with protamines during spermatogenesis by relieving torsional stress (15).
Further sensitivity to subtle changes in DNA is gained by incubation of the cells in the presence of Proteinase K, which removes protamines that otherwise impede DNA migration through the agarose.
Initial experiments revealed that histones and protamine generated a dose-dependent signal in the ACTH-IRMA.
Histones and protamine generated a significant signal in both IRMAs.
Vertebrate species, including mammals and fish, typically have sperm composed of protamines (Kasinsky, 1989; Oliva and Dixon, 1991).
The Chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining was applied for the evaluation of protamine deficiency, Aniline Blue staining to detect excessive presence of histones; Toluidine Blue and fluorescence Acridine Orange, as a sensitive structural probes, were used for assessing sperm chromatin structure and packaging (23), (32), (33).