protamine

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protamine

 [pro´tah-min]
any of a class of simple proteins, soluble in water, not coagulated by heat, and precipitated from aqueous solution by addition of alcohol. Protamines neutralize heparin, and protamine sulfate is used as an antidote in heparin overdosage, administered intravenously.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

pro·ta·mine

(prō'tă-mēn, -min),
Any of a class of proteins, highly basic because rich in l-arginine and simpler in constitution than the albumins and globulins, etc., found in fish spermatozoa in combination with nucleic acid; the protamines have a histonelike function and are present in mammalian sperm; neutralizes anticoagulant action of heparin; used in the preparation of several long-acting insulin preparations.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

protamine

(prō′tə-mēn′, -mĭn) also

protamin

(-mĭn)
n.
Any of a group of arginine-rich proteins that bind to and package DNA in the sperm nucleus. Protamines are used in long-acting formulations of insulin and to neutralize the anticoagulant effects of heparin.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

pro·ta·mine

(prō'tă-mēn)
Any of a class of proteins found in fish sperms in combination with nucleic acid; neutralizes anticoagulant action of heparin.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
They have concluded that the Tamoxifen citrate reduces the level of sperm chromatin condensation by decreasing testicular levels of TP1, TP2, protamine 1 and response element modulator-[tau] (CREMs) proteins, which are effective in chromatin compaction in the spermatogenesis process, and also TX can affect the expression of these genes in both levels of transcription and post-translational modifications (34).
Altered protamine 2 expression is uncommon in donors of known fertility, but common among men with poor fertilizing capacity, and may reflect other abnormalities of spermiogenesis.
(62), (64) Bu model toroid stkistirilmastyla ve toroidlerin istiflenmesiyle protamine bagli DNA'nin hasardan korunurken, linker (baglayict) bolgelerin ve histona bagh DNA bolgelerinin endonukleazlarin olusturdugu DNA hasanna maruz kalcligini gostermektedir.
Histona bagh kromatini, protamine bagli kromatinden ayirmak icin micrococcal ntikleaz sindirimi ve jel purifikasyon yontemi kullanmislardir.
Chromomycin A3 and protamines compete for the same binding sites in the DNA.
Scrotal heat stress induces altered sperm chromatin structure associated with a decrease in protamine disulfide bonding in the stallion.
During chromatin packaging endogenous nucleases (topoisomearse II) are activated to create and ligate nicks that facilitate replacement of histones with protamines during spermatogenesis by relieving torsional stress (15).
Further sensitivity to subtle changes in DNA is gained by incubation of the cells in the presence of Proteinase K, which removes protamines that otherwise impede DNA migration through the agarose.
Initial experiments revealed that histones and protamine generated a dose-dependent signal in the ACTH-IRMA.
Histones and protamine generated a significant signal in both IRMAs.
Vertebrate species, including mammals and fish, typically have sperm composed of protamines (Kasinsky, 1989; Oliva and Dixon, 1991).
The Chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining was applied for the evaluation of protamine deficiency, Aniline Blue staining to detect excessive presence of histones; Toluidine Blue and fluorescence Acridine Orange, as a sensitive structural probes, were used for assessing sperm chromatin structure and packaging (23), (32), (33).