prokaryote

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prokaryote

 [pro-kar´e-ōt]
any member of the kingdom Monera; a unicellular organism lacking a true nucleus and nuclear membrane, having genetic material composed of a single loop of naked double-stranded DNA. The microorganisms, comprising the bacteria and blue-green bacteria (formerly blue-green algae), are predominantly unicellular but may have filamentous, mycelial, or colonial forms. Prokaryotes, with the exception of genus Mycoplasma, have a rigid cell wall. adj., adj prokaryot´ic.

pro·kar·y·ote

(prō-kar'ē-ōt),
A member of the superkingdom Prokaryotae; an organismic unit consisting of a single and presumably primitive moneran cell, or a precellular organism, which lacks a nuclear membrane, paired organized chromosomes, a mitotic mechanism for cell division, microtubules, and mitochondria.
See also: Prokaryotae, Monera, eukaryote.
Synonym(s): procaryote

prokaryote

also

procaryote

(prō-kăr′ē-ōt′)
n.
Any of various microorganisms of the domains Archaea and Bacteria, characterized by the absence of a distinct membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles and by the simultaneous occurrence of DNA transcription and protein synthesis at the same site, in contrast to eukaryotes. Also called moneran.

pro·kar′y·ot′ic (-ŏt′ĭk) adj.

pro·kar·y·ote

(prō-kar'ē-ōt)
A member of the superkingdom Prokaryotae; an organism consisting of a single cell, or a precellular organism, which lacks a nuclear membrane, paired organized chromosomes, a mitotic mechanism for cell division, microtubules, and mitochondria.
See also: eukaryote
Synonym(s): procaryote.

prokaryote

or

prokaryote

any organism, including those in the domains BACTERIA or ARCHAEA, that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus and has no MITOSIS or MEIOSIS. Organelles such as the MITOCHONDRION and the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM are also lacking. Compare EUKARYOTE and See Fig. 155 .
References in periodicals archive ?
In the early 1950s, according to Allan and Lutz, the understanding of cancer could be summarized by the following statement: "Cancer cells are cells that have reverted to more primitive cells that behave less like eukaryotic cells and more like prokaryotic cells."
As opposed to prokaryotic cells in which pigment molecules are attached to peripheral membranes of the cell, the chloroplast represents highly organized arrangements of the chlorophyll, and the other pigment molecules are arranged in specific double membrane layers called thylakoids.
E8 Affymetrix 6,703,228 Pharmaceuticals MIT Eppendorf AG Bio-Rad 7,347,977 Laboratories Bio-Rad Eppendorf 4,910,140 Laboratories North 5,186,800 America 5,642,035 Invitrogen GE 6,610,522 Healthcare 6,589,768 6,063,608 5,668,005 5,244,797 5,405,776 Invitrogen GE 5,043,272 Healthcare Case Plaintiff Patent Title Filed E8 Methods and Products Pharmaceuticals Related to Genotyping 7/1/2008 MIT and DNA Analysis Eppendorf AG Microtitration Plate 3/25/2008 Bio-Rad Electroporation of Laboratories Prokaryotic Cells 6/20/2008 Transfection High- Voltage Controller Invitrogen Cloned Genes Encoding Reverse Transcriptase Lacking RNase H Activity 3/26/2008 Invitrogen Amplification of Nucleic Acid Sequences Using Oligonucleotides of Random Sequence as Primers 3/26/2008
Prokaryotic cells usually have a single, circular chromosome located in a part of the cytoplasm called the nucleoid (nuclear region).
By comparing the difference in sequences of homologous genes encoding ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA genes from prokaryotic cells and 18S rRNA from eukaryotic cells) we can measure the evolutionary distance between species of organisms.
Prokaryotic cells, which are represented by the eubacteria and archaea, contain precious little internal compartmentalization and have transcriptionally coupled translation, whereas eukaryotic cells, which compose plants, fungi, algae, animals, and a widely diverse group of unicellular protists, are equipped with a large cadre of intracellular compartments that are functionally specialized for specific intracellular tasks.
"For instance, the precise 3-D localization of proteins within prokaryotic cells is key to many cellular functions, including cell cycle, DNA replication, development, motility, and adhesion.
The evolution of the origin of T-DNA in the bacterial plasmids is unknown, but it is of considerable interest because the T-DNA encodes genes that are expressed in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The hormone involved, IAA, is produced from indole-3 -acetamide, and both IAA and cytokinins can be produced by agrobacteria in rich media containing tryptophan or tyrosine.
Yet mechanical force can affect both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. At this workshop, Gillespie described how a mechanically sensitive hair bundle serves the hair cell in mechano-electrical transduction.
Identification and functional characterization of Siberian wild rye (Elymus sibiricus L.) small heat shock protein 16.9 gene (EsHsp16.9) conferring diverse stress tolerance in prokaryotic cells. Biotechnol.
Objective: The emergence of complex eukaryotic life forms on Earth from prokaryotic cells is one of the most fundamental questions in biology and also one of the least understood transitions in evolution.