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(prō'en-kef'ă-lin), [MIM*131330]
A precursor protein that contains several enkephalin sequences. Compare: propiocortin.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
Suhr et al., "Elevated plasma levels of neuropeptide proenkephalin a predict mortality and functional outcome in ischemic stroke," Journal of the American College ofCardiology, vol.
(b), (c) The expression of the human proenkephalin (hPPE) gene in engineered hBMSCs (C) was analyzed by RT-PCR 2 weeks (passage 3) after cell transfer.
5-CTTGTGTTCCCTGTGTGCAGTG-3 (forward) 3-AGCAACCTCATTCTCCAAGTCA-5 (reverse) for PDyn mRNA 5-GAAGATGGATGAGCTTTACCCC-3 (forward) 3-CAAGGTGTCTCCCTCATCTGC-5 (reverse) for proenkephalin mRNA Amplification was performed with 40 cycles of denaturation at 95[degrees]C for 15 s, annealing at 60[degrees]C for 60 s, and extension at 75[degrees]C for 20 s using the ABI 7300 Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems, CA, USA).
Eiden, "A Calcium-Initiated Signaling Pathway Propagated through Calcineurin and cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein Activates Proenkephalin Gene Transcription after Depolarization," Molecular Pharmacology, vol.
It is postulated that an ancestral version of proenkephalin, via a series of gene duplication events, has given rise to proopiomelanocortin, prodynorphin and proorphanin.
Barna et al., "Proenkephalin expression and enkephalin release are widely observed in non-neuronal tissues," Peptides, vol.
[3] Nonstandard abbreviations: MI, myocardial infarction; GRACE, Global Registry for Acute Coronary Events; STEMI, ST-elevated myocardial infarction; PENK, proenkephalin; MR-proADM, midregional pro-adrenomedullin; pro-SP, pro-substance P; TMAO, trimethylamine W-oxide; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; ,death/MI, composite of all-cause mortality or reinfarction; NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; BP, blood pressure; AUC, area under the curve; CHAID, [chi square] automatic interaction detection; HR, hazard ratio; NRI, net reclassification index; ACE/ARB, angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blocker.
Experiments have shown polymorphisms of proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN) genes are related to heroin abuse and gene expression in the human striatum.
The main groups of opioid peptides, enkephalins, dynorphins and beta-endorphin, are derived from proenkephalin, prodynorphin and proopiomelanocortin, respectively (20).
Similarly, chronic cannabinoid treatment increases gene expression of prodynorphin (which is a precursor to dynorphin A and dynorphin B, both additional opioids) and the opioid proenkephalin in brain regions mediating pain relief and drug dependence (Corchero et al.
DNA hypermethylation, a major epigenetic modification, has also been reported to be responsible for inactivating the expression of genes [e.g., CDKN2A, PENK (proenkephalin; alias, preproenkephalin), and others] early in the development of PDAC (6).
We added 11 markers [GATA3, GATA binding protein 3; GDNF, glial cell derived neurotrophic factor; OPCML, opioid binding protein/cell adhesion molecule-like; PENK, proenkephalin; TFAP2A, transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha); APP, amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (peptidase nexin-II, Alzheimer disease); CACNA1G, calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit; HOXA1, homeobox A1; NEUROG1, neurogenin 1; APBA2, amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family A, member 2; and TRRAP, transformation/transcription domain-associated protein on the basis of a study that indicated increased methylated DNA in CRC tissue (19).