The basic etiology in the development of pediatric inguinal hernia is persistence of processus vaginalis
that usually closes between the 36th and 40th week of gestation2.
Inguinal exploration in infants or children with unilateral hernias has been an important issue for more than half a century since the high incidence of contra-lateral patent processus vaginalis
(CPPV) was first reported.
In the closed ring variant, the processus vaginalis
does not develop, the gubernaculum is absent, and the internal ring is closed.
In the right inguinal canal, omentum was present in the patient's processus vaginalis
with blood flow by the color Doppler US (Figure 2(c)).
(10) This association is likely to be attributed to the embryological development of processus vaginalis
and timing of the testicular descent.
In addition, the processus vaginalis
, an evagination of the parietal peritoneum, elongates through the internal inguinal ring between the internal and external oblique muscles, creating a path for the descending testis to reach the scrotum.
Redman, "Association of epididymal anomalies with patent processus vaginalis
in hernia, hydrocele and cryptorchidism," Journal of Urology, vol.
Laparoscopic herniorrhaphy has several advantages over conventional open herniotomy; most of them related to the evaluation of possible contralateral patent processus vaginalis
(PPV) and avoidance of trauma to the vas deferens and spermatic vessels.
(1) The processus vaginalis
peritonei (called canal of Nuck in the female) is a tubular fold of peritoneum that invaginates into the inguinal canal anterior to the gubernaculum and descending testis, forming the tunica vaginalis testis in male.
is the diverticulum of the peritoneal cavity growing into the mesenchyme of the gubernaculum, inguinal canal and the scrotum.
(2,5,7-13) It has been emphasised that the development of scrotal swelling or hydrocoele in a child with a VP shunt should raise the possibility of a shunt complication.14 An explanation of the migration of the peritoneal catheter is difficult but migration of the peritoneal catheter into the scrotum tends to occur in younger children because of the higher incidence of an unobliterated processus vaginalis
and smaller volume of the peritoneal cavity in these patients.
Ectopic prostatic tissue has also been identified in other areas of the male genitourinary system, such as epididymis, (4,6) seminal vesicle, (6) processus vaginalis
, (11) and testis.