Finally, the comparison of deficits occurrences by group (mild and severe TBI) indicated significant differences only in the retroactive and proactive interference variables of the RAVLT (See table 2).
In relation to the variables with lower frequency of impaired performance in the total sample, the ones that can be highlighted are working memory indexes for suc cessful rules maintenance (MWCST ruptures), proactive interference variables of the RAVLT, executive indices of cognitive flexibility of the TMT (time B minus time A divided by time A, and time B divided by time A) and difficulty in maintaining rules and focused attention (errors of part A of TMT).
1) Proactive interference
resulting from the repeated measures design used in the current study appears to have had only a minor effect on performance, consistent with previous studies showing release of proactive interference
when participants shift from speech to sign and vice versa (Hoemann & Keske, 1995; Hoemann & Koenig, 1990).
For instance, Zhao (1997), by comparing lists of different lengths, demonstrated that proactive interference
accumulates across items and interferes with memory for the later items on a list.
Intratrial proactive interference in rats' serial alternation performance in the radial maze.
Two sources of proactive interference in spatial working memory: Multiple effects of repeated trials on radial maze performance by rats.
More words were recalled from List 1 than from List 2, probably reflecting a proactive interference
Across tests, as increasingly more List 1 items become available to FR participants, the proactive interference
from those items should increase retrieval competition among items.
Blumenthal and Donald Robbins, "Delayed Release from Proactive Interference
with Meaningful Material: How Much Do We Remember After Reading Brief Prose Passages?
Time-outs may have little effect on learning tasks, since such tasks generate little or no proactive interference
across trials, because the same response is either correct or incorrect for each trial and does not vary across trials.
One approach that has been used to assess the role of the common element on proactive interference
consists of varying its similarity in the target and interfering association.
The release from proactive interference
(RPI) task continues to be a useful memory encoding tool (Wickens, 1972; Wickens, Born, & Allen, 1963; Perez & Kee, 2000).