A perennial herb, the flowers and roots of which contain flavonoids, glycosides, and saponins; it is analgesic, antispasmodic, diuretic, expectorant, laxative, and sedative. It has been used internally for arthritis, headache, insomnia, measles, paralysis, respiratory tract infections, and restlessness, and topically for sunburns
Since we wanted to simulate the seed dispersal pattern of Primula veris (Richards 1986), the area of a sowing plot for one individual was constant (20 cm x 20 cm), so individuals with higher seed number had higher sowing density (for the detailed description of methods see Syrjanen and Lehtila 1993).
In Experiment 2 we used a two-way factorial design to study the effects of leaf removal and manipulation of reproduction on Primula veris (all treatments in [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1 OMITTED]).
Dry open spots, particularly on chalk or lime, are ideal for the pasque flower (Pulsatilla vulgaris), cowslip (primula veris), ladies bedstraw (Galium verum), milkwort (Polygala vulgaris), bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and harebell (Campanula rotundifolia).