We also assessed a primary sleep disorder
group and a healthy control group with the same age, sex distribution, and education level as the PD patients.
Narcolepsy is a primary sleep disorder
characterized by uncontrollable and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with one or all of the following: cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and nocturnal sleep disturbance.
Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) present a disordered sleep pattern and frequently undergo polysomnography to exclude a primary sleep disorder
. These studies have shown reduced sleep efficiency, a reduction of deep sleep, prolonged sleep initiation, and alpha-wave intrusion during deep sleep.
Your health care professional may also recommend specialized sleep studies to diagnose or rule out another primary sleep disorder
As a result I reported this case as a narcolepsy-like and lamented the fact that there was limited confirmatory evidence for a primary sleep disorder
. We have several factors operating simultaneously (the residual effects of severe TBI, significant developmental disability, and a psychotic disorder) that make this case difficult to explain away.
Commonly proposed theories of etiology include a persistent viral infection, primary muscle disorder, chronic immune dysfunction, neuroendocrine disorder, primary sleep disorder
, and neuropsychiatric disorders (Farrar et al., 1995).
The relationship between psychiatric illness and sleep disorders is bidirectional: People with mental illness often have sleep complaints, and a primary sleep disorder
often results in neuropsychiatric complications.
"More research needs to be done in order to determine if sleep affects ADHD children with no primary sleep disorder
," Gruber added.
In comparison with the prevalence of other sleep disorders in the USA, narcolepsy is the third most frequently diagnosed primary sleep disorder
with sleep apnea first and restless legs syndrome second [source - NINDS narcolepsy fact sheet].
Specialized sleep studies may be recommended by your health care professional if another primary sleep disorder
The physician should consider other possible causes of the insomnia, including a primary sleep disorder
, inadequate sleep hygiene, restless legs syndrome, psychopathologic causes, and alcohol abuse. For example, about 10% to 15% of those with chronic insomnia have an underlying problem of abuse of alcohol and other sedatives.[22,25] If, after treatment, the insomnia still persists, a more thorough evaluation of the patient or referral to a sleep medicine specialist may be indicated.
Insomnia in patients with substance use disorders may be a manifestation of protracted withdrawal or a primary sleep disorder
. Evaluate your patient's: