They observed that the presence of a higher steel reinforcement may not allow the complete yielding of the primary reinforcement
and it results in a brittle failure due to the crushing of the compressed regions.
Second, rather than dropping primary reinforcement
and moving directly to secondary reinforcement, teachers need to plan a bridge between primary and secondary reinforcement.
This model has three assumptions: (a) terminal-link value depends on the time from the onset of the link to primary reinforcement
, (b) initial-link value depends on the time from the onset of the initial links to primary reinforcement
, and (c) the choice proportion is based on the amount of value that is added when the subject enters a terminal link (Mazur, 2001, p.
However, several studies have shown that delayed primary reinforcement
can have a substantial impact on responding in situations in which it was assumed to exert little or no influence.
The theory states that the ability of a stimulus to act as a conditioned reinforcer can be determined by comparing the reduction in time to primary reinforcement
correlated with the onset of that stimulus, relative to the average delay to primary reinforcement
correlated with the prior stimulus situation (Fantino, 1969b, 1977; Squires & Fantino 1971).
Moreover, their findings were inconsistent with the molar notions that choice behavior is a function only of the primary reinforcement
presented at the end of each cycle and that terminal-link stimuli are solely discriminative.
Vollmer, Rangdahl, Roane, Marcus, 1997) indicated that NCR is both easy to implement in the applied setting and has a low probability of negative side effects, and (3) the NCR procedure provided the opportunity for the frequent pairing of staff approach with potential primary reinforcement
. NCR consisted of the delivery of a preferred stimulus item (food), paired with social praise, on a VT 30 second schedule.
For example, Delay Reduction Theory (Fantino, Preston, & Dunn, 1993) maintains that the strength of a stimulus as a conditioned reinforcer depends on the reduction in time to primary reinforcement
that is signaled by onset of the stimulus.
According to delay reduction theory (DRT), the conditioned reinforcing strength of a stimulus may be predicted by calculating the reduction in the duration of time to primary reinforcement
signaled by that stimulus (Fantino, 1969; 1981; Squires & Fantino, 1971).
This was in keeping with the data and theoretical position of Egger and Miller (1962, 1963), which held that a stimulus must be a reliable and nonredundant predictor of primary reinforcement
to become an effective secondary reinforcer.
My colleagues and I have hypothesized that for some children, problem behaviors like aggression, self-injury, and property destruction occur not because they directly produce primary reinforcement
, but rather because these destructive behaviors increase the probability of reinforcement for mands (Fisher et al., 1999).