potassium permanganate(redirected from Potassium manganate(VII))
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Since most foods contain a good supply of potassium, potassium deficiency (hypokalemia) is unlikely to be caused by an unbalanced diet. Possible causes include cushing's syndrome (due to an adrenal gland disorder) and fanconi's syndrome (the result of a congenital kidney defect). The cause could also be an excessive dose of cortisone, prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, or thiazide diuretics, which are administered for treatment of hypertension. Signs of potassium deficiency can include weakness and lethargy, rapid pulse, nausea, diarrhea, and tingling sensations.
If the body absorbs enough potassium but the element is not distributed properly, various disorders may develop. Thus an abnormally low content of potassium in the blood may result in an intermittent temporary paralysis of the muscles, known as familial periodic paralysis.
Potassium deficiency can be treated by administration of potassium supplements. There is a large variety of these preparations. Some are liquids, some are powders to be dissolved in liquids, and some are slow-release tablets that dissolve in the intestine. All can cause gastrointestinal irritation. For many persons on diuretic therapy for hypertension, potassium deficiency can be avoided by increasing their consumption of potassium-containing foods, such as bananas, dates, prunes, and raisins, and potassium supplements are not needed. Potassium supplements are never given to patients receiving potassium-sparing diuretics such as amiloride, spironolactone, or triamterene. If the difficulty lies in the body's use of potassium, treatment is concerned with the primary cause of the deficiency.
po·tas·si·um per·man·ga·nate(pŏ-taśē-ŭm pĕr-mangă-nāt)
potassium permanganateA soluble compound that gives a skin-staining, deep purple solution with antiseptic and astringent properties. Now little used.
|Alcohol||IMS; 70% isopropyl alcohol; spirituous lotions, e.g. 3% salicylic acid in IMS; surgical spirit; evaporates to cool skin and reduce maceration|
|Formalin||10% solution causes a toughening effect on epidermis (may cause hypersensitivity)|
|AgNO3||20-25% solution (higher strengths can be used as NaCl in sweat mitigates the action of AgNO3)|
|Tannic acid||As dusting powder, or as borotannic complex giving an antifungal action|
|Hamamelis||Witch hazel: cooling effect|
|Calamine||Lotion or cream with a mild astringent and absorbent action; it will take up 1.5 times its own weight of water|
|Salicylic acid 3%||Astringent and antiseptic as a lotion or dusting powder|
|Burow's solution||Aluminium acetate ∼5% solution; diluted 1:3 in water to reduce sweat flow|
|Talc||Antipruritic and absorbent; used as a base for dusting powders and to lubricate the skin|
|Dusting powders||Astringent medicament (e.g. tannic acid, salicylic acid), or antifungal medicament (e.g. boric acid, undecenoic acid) and lubricating applications in a talc, kaolin and/or zinc oxide base|
|Others||Agents that coincidentally show astringent/anhidrotic action include potassium permanganate, sodium polymetaphosphate, ferric chloride and compound tincture of benzoin|
Note: Astringents act variously to cause protein precipitation (and thereby reduce epidermal maceration), cooling of tissues, constriction of sweat ducts and skin lubrication); anhidrotics act variously as cooling agents, astringents, and to alter epidermal reaction to retained sweat (e.g. reduce friction at the skin surface).
Both are used to control hyperhidrosis and bromidrosis by preventing the accumulation of sweat, increasing the skin's reaction to the action of sweat, and to compensate for any loss of resistance to infection at the skin surface.
IMS, industrial methylated spirit.