potassium acetate


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potassium

 (K) [po-tas´e-um]
a chemical element, atomic number 19, atomic weight 39.102. (See Appendix 6.) In combination with other minerals in the body, potassium forms alkaline salts that are important in body processes and play an essential role in maintenance of the acid-base and water balance in the body. All body cells, especially muscle tissue, require a high content of potassium. A proper balance between sodium, calcium, and potassium in the blood plasma is necessary for proper cardiac function.

Since most foods contain a good supply of potassium, potassium deficiency (hypokalemia) is unlikely to be caused by an unbalanced diet. Possible causes include cushing's syndrome (due to an adrenal gland disorder) and fanconi's syndrome (the result of a congenital kidney defect). The cause could also be an excessive dose of cortisone, prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, or thiazide diuretics, which are administered for treatment of hypertension. Signs of potassium deficiency can include weakness and lethargy, rapid pulse, nausea, diarrhea, and tingling sensations.

If the body absorbs enough potassium but the element is not distributed properly, various disorders may develop. Thus an abnormally low content of potassium in the blood may result in an intermittent temporary paralysis of the muscles, known as familial periodic paralysis.

Potassium deficiency can be treated by administration of potassium supplements. There is a large variety of these preparations. Some are liquids, some are powders to be dissolved in liquids, and some are slow-release tablets that dissolve in the intestine. All can cause gastrointestinal irritation. For many persons on diuretic therapy for hypertension, potassium deficiency can be avoided by increasing their consumption of potassium-containing foods, such as bananas, dates, prunes, and raisins, and potassium supplements are not needed. Potassium supplements are never given to patients receiving potassium-sparing diuretics such as amiloride, spironolactone, or triamterene. If the difficulty lies in the body's use of potassium, treatment is concerned with the primary cause of the deficiency.
Homeostatic balance of potassium. Through the functions of resorption and excretion, the kidneys are the best regulator of potassium balance in the extracellular fluids. From Malarkey and McMorrow, 2000.
potassium acetate an electrolyte replenisher and systemic and urinary alkalizer.
potassium bicarbonate an electrolyte replenisher, antacid, and urinary alkalizer.
potassium bitartrate a compound administered rectally as a suppository with sodium bicarbonate to produce carbon dioxide, which promotes defecation by distending the rectal ampulla; administered for relief of constipation, and evacuation of the colon before surgical or diagnostic procedures or childbirth.
potassium chloride a compound used orally or intravenously as an electrolyte replenisher.
potassium citrate a systemic and urinary alkalizer, electrolyte replenisher, and diuretic.
dibasic potassium phosphate the dipotassium salt, K2HPO4; used alone or in combination with other phosphate compounds as an electrolyte replenisher.
potassium gluconate an electrolyte replenisher used in the prophylaxis and treatment of hypokalemia.
potassium guaiacolsulfonate an expectorant.
potassium iodide an expectorant, antithyroid agent, and antifungal.
monobasic potassium phosphate the monopotassium salt, KH2PO4; used as a buffering agent in pharmaceutical preparations and, alone or in combination with other phosphate compounds, as an electrolyte replenisher and urinary acidifier and for prevention of kidney stones.
potassium permanganate a topical antiinfective and oxidizing agent, and an antidote for many poisons.
potassium phosphate a compound combining potassium and phosphoric acid, usually dibasic potassium phosphate.
potassium sodium tartrate a compound used as a saline cathartic.

potassium acetate

Pharmacologic class: Mineral, electrolyte

Therapeutic class: Electrolyte replacement, nutritional supplement

Pregnancy risk category C

Action

Maintains acid-base balance, isotonicity, and electrophysiologic balance throughout body tissues; crucial to nerve impulse transmission and contraction of cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle. Also essential for normal renal function and carbohydrate metabolism.

Availability

Concentrate for injection: 2 mEq/ml in 20-, 50-, and 100-ml vials; 4 mEq/ml in 50-ml vials

Indications and dosages

To prevent or treat potassium depletion; diabetic acidosis; metabolic alkalosis; arrhythmias; periodic paralysis attacks; hyperadrenocorticism; primary aldosteronism; healing phase of burns or scalds; overmedication with adrenocorticoids, testosterone, or corticotropin

Adults: Dosage highly individualized. For potassium level above 2.5 mEq/L, give 40 mEq/L as additive to I.V. infusion at a maximum rate of 10 mEq/hour; maximum daily dosage is 200 mEq. For potassium level less than 2 mEq/L, give 80 mEq/L as additive to I.V. infusion at a maximum rate of 40 mEq/hour (with cardiac monitoring); maximum daily dosage is 400 mEq.

Children: Dosage highly individualized; up to 3 mEq/kg or 40 mEq/m2/day as additive to I.V. infusion.

Contraindications

• Acute dehydration

• Heat cramps

• Hyperkalemia

• Hyperkalemic familial periodic paralysis

• Severe renal impairment

• Severe hemolytic reactions

• Untreated Addison's disease

• Severe tissue trauma

• Concurrent use of potassium-sparing diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, or salt substitutes containing potassium

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• cardiac disease, renal impairment, diabetes mellitus, hypomagnesemia

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children (safety and efficacy not established).

Administration

• Make sure patient is well hydrated and urinating before starting therapy.

Give only as additive to I.V. infusion. Never give by I.V. push or I.M. route, and never give undiluted. Use peripheral line with maximum rate of 40 mEq/hour (with cardiac monitoring).

To ensure that potassium is well mixed in compatible solution, don't add potassium to I.V. bottle in hanging position.

Dilute in compatible I.V. solution. Administer slowly to reduce risk of fatal hyperkalemia.

• Know that maximum infusion rate without cardiac monitoring is 20 mEq/hour. Infusion rates above 20 mEq/hour necessitate cardiac monitoring.

• If patient complains of burning with I.V. administration, decrease flow rate.

• Be aware that potassium preparations are not interchangeable.

• Know that dosages are expressed in mEq of potassium and that potassium acetate contains 10.2 mEq/g.

Adverse reactions

CNS: confusion, unusual fatigue, restlessness, asthenia, flaccid paralysis, paresthesia, absent reflexes

CV: ECG changes, hypotension, arrhythmias, heart block, cardiac arrest

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, flatulence

Metabolic: hyperkalemia

Musculoskeletal: weakness and heaviness of legs

Respiratory: respiratory paralysis Other: irritation at I.V. site

Interactions

Drug-drug. ACE inhibitors, potassium-sparing diuretics, other potassium-containing preparations: increased risk of hyperkalemia

Drug-diagnostic tests. Potassium: increased level

Drug-food. Salt substitutes containing potassium: increased risk of hyperkalemia

Drug-herbs. Dandelion: increased risk of hyperkalemia

Licorice: decreased response to potassium

Patient monitoring

• Monitor renal function, fluid intake and output, and potassium, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen levels.

Know that potassium is contra-indicated in severe renal impairment and must be used with extreme caution (if at all) in patients with any degree of renal impairment, because of risk of life-threatening hyperkalemia.

• Assess vital signs and ECG. Watch for arrhythmias.

• Evaluate patient's neurologic status. Stay alert for neurologic complications.

• Monitor I.V. site for irritation.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient to report unusual pain, redness, swelling, or other reactions at infusion site.

• Advise patient to report nausea, vomiting, confusion, numbness and tingling, unusual tiredness or weakness, or heavy feeling in legs.

• Instruct patient to avoid salt substitutes.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, foods, and herbs mentioned above.

po·tas·si·um ac·e·tate

a diuretic, diaphoretic, and systemic and urinary alkalizer.
Synonym(s): sal diureticum
References in periodicals archive ?
The city currently uses retrofitted dump trucks to apply the potassium acetate for anti-icing, but NYCDOT's Division of Bridges expects the purchase of 18 new trucks to improve the anti-icing operations significantly.
Intracellular recordings from neuronal somata were performed with glass microelectrodes filled with 1.0 M potassium acetate (12-25 M[omega] resistance).
The Timmins airport will receive about $70,000 towards a new wet-dry spreader that will disperse potassium acetate on icy runways in winter.
DAA said the de-icer - potassium acetate - is usually only needed to clear frost and light coverings of snow.
Relative Average Salt/conditioner ([a.sub.w]) (degrees]C) humidity MC (a) (%) Lithium chloride 0.11 25 20 3.3 Potassium acetate 0.23 25 28 5.2 Sodium bromide 0.57 25 56 10.1 Sodium acetate 0.76 25 73 14.5 Potassium nitrate 0.94 25 85 24.5 Ammonium monophoshate 0.82 25 95 27.5 Drierite 0.11 20 0.31 Dcionized water 25 99 29.5 (a) Average ovendry MC (percent) of 16 samples at EMC.
Destructing agents monoethanol amine (MEA) and potassium acetate (PA; a catalyst) were commercial products of Shostka Chemical Co.
* An anti-icing and deicing system on Minnesota's Interstate 35 that monitors environmental conditions, activates flashing beacons to alert drivers to icy conditions, and sprays liquid potassium acetate on a bridge deck to prevent surface moisture from freezing
FHWA said many states were interested in the study, which showed that waste liquid whey could be used to make about 1.7 billion pounds per year of low cost CMA and potassium acetate.
Potassium acetate, 2 mol/L, and magnesium acetate, 0.5 mol/L, were prepared in water and were stored at 4 [degrees]C.
Leidos has a future requirement for 2 distinct types of runway de-icing fluid: A potassium acetate based runway de-icer for the majority of uk bases and a glycol based runway de-icer for bases which endure inclement conditions routinely.
Both magnesium chloride and potassium acetate were clearly visible on the bridge deck for three or more days after the system was activated.
A silica spin disc filter unit or a spin filter containing silica matrix suspended in 0.75 mol/L potassium acetate (pH 4.6) containing 4 mol/L guanidine hydrochloride (50 [micro]L) was placed in a 1.5-mL microcentrifuge tube, and the plasmid DNA-containing solution was applied to the spin filter units.