To the informal position of dictator of English letters which had been held successively by Dryden, Addison, and Pope, succeeded in the third quarter of the eighteenth century a man very different from any of them, one of the most forcefully individual of all authors, Samuel Johnson.
Sir Robert Walpole, ruling the country with unscrupulous absolutism, had now put an end to the employment of literary men in public life, and though Johnson's poem 'London,' a satire on the city written in imitation of the Roman poet Juvenal and published in 1738, attracted much attention, he could do no better for a time than to become one of that undistinguished herd of hand-to-mouth and nearly starving Grub Street writers whom Pope was so contemptuously abusing and who chiefly depended on the despotic patronage of magazine publishers.
Despite the numerous papal documents issued on the value of Gregorian chant, such traditional music is all too often dismissed as merely the private opinion of a few popes
Anti-Papal Prejudice is a fascinating historical survey with informative chapters devoted to "Bad Popes
"; "The Campaign Against Pius IX"; "Some Other Modern Slanders and Slanderers"; "The Pope
Who was a Freemason"; Why Pope
Clement XII Condemned Freemasonry"; "On Some Medieval Fables"; "Hildebrand and Matilda of Tuscany"; "Papal Forgeries"; "The Forgeries of Cardinal Vaughan"; "The Popes
and the Bible"; "The Extermination of Heretics"; "Groveling to the Pope
"; "Papal Rapacity and the Ecclesia Anglicana"; "The Popes
in Protestant Tradition"; "Darkening the Shadows"; and "What Prejudice Ignores".
His death this past April - only two other popes
had served longer- was greeted with a global outpouring of devotion and grief.
With the work of Kantorowicz and Giesey as reference point and methodological model, Paravicini-Baglioni analyzes theory; visual imagery, ceremony and ritual to follow the interplay between the symbolic figure of the pope
as vicar of Christ, whose early death served an edifying purpose, and popes
in the flesh who, like most humans, preferred to postpone their demise as long as possible.
In 1869 he convened a church council that, while condemning materialism and atheism, also approved the doctrine of papal infallibility, the belief that the popes
speak without error on theological matters.
Let me state firstly that when we make this distinction, the term 'members of the church' does not refer to a particular category of church members, but can include according to the circumstances popes
, cardinals, bishops, priests, and the laity.
LOS ANGELES -- A three-city '05 -'06 exhibition of Saint Peter and the Vatican: The Legacy of the Popes
, one of the world's largest collection of Vatican art, documents and historical objects to tour North America, is scheduled for public viewing in Montreal, San Antonio and Milwaukee.
Fortunately, the decision of Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger to choose the name Benedict gave both Catholics and non-Catholics the opportunity to rediscover Benedict XV, who is no doubt one of the most underrated and underappreciated popes
in recent centuries.
Peter's Basilica along with many, many other dead popes
But even these bad popes
, even these popes
who were robust sinners and debauched personalities, according to the faith, were not capable of teaching doctrinal error and were in the chair of Peter because of divine intentions.