The inverse suspension polymerization is advantageous over bulk or solution polymerization in dissipating the large heat of polymerization and its ability to produce spherical microparticles.
In suspension or inverse suspension polymerization where a discrete phase is dispersed as droplets or particles in a continuous liquid medium, the polymer particle size can be controlled by judicious design of agitator, reactor geometry, suspension stabilizer type and concentration, continuous suspension medium properties, etc.
Napper, "Molecular weight distribution in emulsion polymerizations," Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Chemistry Edition, vol.
Penlidis, "A sequential iterative scheme for design of experiments in complex polymerizations," Chemical Engineering & Technology, vol.
Dispersion polymerizations in supercritical carbon dioxide.
Summary: Dispersion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was carried out in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) using Clariant Nuva HPC as stabilizer.
Georges, "Rapid Additive-Free TEMPO-Mediated Stable Free Radical Polymerizations of Styrene," J.
Fischer, H., "Criteria for Livingness and Control in Nitroxide Mediated and Related Radical Polymerizations," in "Advances in Controlled/Living Radical Polymerization," K.
The low molecular weight of the costabilizer is also responsible for the high swelling capacity of the droplets and polymer particles (made by emulsification of polymer solutions, polymerization of monomer miniemulsions, or a combination of these).
The deliberate preparation and polymerization of what later became known as miniemulsions was undertaken at Lehigh University in 1972 by a group consisting of Professor John Vanderhoff, Visiting Professor John Ugelstad, and Mohamed El-Aasser who had just arrived at Lehigh as a post doc.
The reactive surfactant and cosurfaclant can take part in copolymerization with monomers, and is widely used in conventional emulsion polymerization
, which can restrain effectively the migration of the surfactant and cosurfactant itself, and obviously improve the latex film properties.
His efforts included the synthesis of aqueous polymers; the development of new controlled radical polymerization
methods for the polymerization
of acrylic monomers; and the study of latex film formation process in waterborne coatings.