pneumocyte

(redirected from Pneumocytes)

al·ve·o·lar cell

any of the cells lining the alveoli of the lung, including the squamous alveolar cells, the great alveolar cells, and the alveolar macrophages.
Synonym(s): pneumocyte

pneumocyte

(nū′mō-sīt)
Either of the two types of cells that form the alveoli of the lung. Type I cells are simple squamous epithelium that permit gas exchange. Type II cells are rounded and produce surfactant.

pneumocyte

includes granular and alveolar pneumocytes; see alveolar2 cell.
References in periodicals archive ?
Permissivity of Vero cells, human pneumocytes and human endometrial cells to Waddlia chondrophila.
NCE was defined in type II pneumocytes by nuclear and cytoplasmic enlargement with hyperchromatic, atypical-appearing nuclei and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm (Figure 1B, D, and F).
An earlier biopsy obtained from one of the cases showed mild chronic interstitial inflammation, fibroblastic proliferation, and reactive pneumocytes.
Alveolar type II cells become more abundant as they attempt to repair the alveolar surface, destroyed by the loss of type I pneumocytes.
In uninfected cases, dilated airways are lined by bronchiolar-type epithelium and dilated airspaces are lined with Type 1 and Type 2 pneumocytes.
SP-A and SP-D are present in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid; they are produced by type II pneumocytes and Clara cells and belong to the pattern recognition receptor family of C-type lectins, which bind to surface carbohydrates on microbial pathogens and promote their phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages.
As an example of the benefits potentially associated with biomarkers for ILD, Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein antigen (classified as a MUC1 mucin), first described by Kohno et al in 1985, that in normal lungs is expressed mainly on type II pneumocytes and bronchiolar epithelial cells, while only weakly in basal cells of the terminal bronchiolar epithelium, a small number of middle layer cells of the bronchial epithelium, and serous cells of the bronchial gland.
2003) also noted that type II pneumocytes were more numerous and larger in the DEHP-treated pups and that the peroxisomes in the alveolar type II pneumocytes of treated pups appeared unaffected; thus, they suggested that DEHP action in the fetal lung is not dependent on interaction with the PPAR[alpha].
PPAR-gamma was shown to be expressed in many tissues including adipocytes, monocytes, macrophages, liver, skeletal muscle, breast, colon, and type 2 alveolar pneumocytes (10-15).
While the new study found that the 1918 ressortant strains and H5N1 each attacked specialized respiratory cells called pneumocytes, the 1918 chimaraes showed preference for so-called type I pneumocytes, responsible for air exchange in the lungs.
Type II pneumocytes are very large, dark-staining cells in clumps containing large vacuoles that contain surfactant.
1,3) CT may show homogeneous peripheral and high-attenuation opacities due to incorporation of iodine-rich amiodarone (37% iodine by weight) and its metabolite desethylamiodarone in type II pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages.