pneumocyte


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al·ve·o·lar cell

any of the cells lining the alveoli of the lung, including the squamous alveolar cells, the great alveolar cells, and the alveolar macrophages.
Synonym(s): pneumocyte

pneumocyte

(nū′mō-sīt)
Either of the two types of cells that form the alveoli of the lung. Type I cells are simple squamous epithelium that permit gas exchange. Type II cells are rounded and produce surfactant.

pneumocyte

includes granular and alveolar pneumocytes; see alveolar2 cell.
References in periodicals archive ?
Histologic analysis showed that lesions were similar to those observed in humans and indicated necrotizing bronchointerstitial pneumonia with type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, abundant fibrin, and streaming mucus in airways.
Mutational and radiographic analysis of pulmonary disease consistent with lymphangioleiomyomatosis and micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia in women with tuberous sclerosis.
9) Pneumocystis is primarily an alveolar pathogen that does not invade the pneumocyte to which it tightly adheres.
31) Vitamin A deficiency produces profound morphologic alterations in liver and lung parenchyma and impairs pneumocyte function.
Stretching pneumocyte type II cells in basilar alveoli is associated with delayed increase in surfactant in those alveoli.
The initial underlying pathologic process in the lung from amiodarone toxicity is postulated to be a drug-induced phospholipidosis, (9) and the mechanism by which phospholipids accumulate in the cell is believed to be by inhibition of intracellular phospholipase when the drug and its metabolites are trapped in alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocyte lysosomes.
At the periphery of the mycotic lesions were foci of type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, septal fibroplasia, and mononuclear infiltration.
Note background type II pneumocyte nuclear staining for thyroid transcription factor 1 in A (circle) (original magnifications X40).
A severe inflammatory reaction that ultimately results in both endothelial and pneumocyte damage leads to the observed severe hypoxaemia.
1) Pulmonary lesions are less common and occur mainly as lymphangiomyomatosis and/or multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia.
Lamellar bodies are secreted by the type II pneumocyte and unfold to form tubular myelin and other large aggregates that are absorbed onto the hydrated inner layer of the alveoli.
Endogenous surfactants, those which occur naturally in the lungs of the baby, are a product of the alveolar type II cell, the granular pneumocyte, and that natural surfactant consists of 85 to 90 percent lipids and 10 percent proteins, jointly comprising surfactant as we know it, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), or lecithin.