blood plasma

(redirected from Plasma (blood))
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.

plasma

 [plaz´mah]
1. the fluid portion of the lymph.
2. the fluid portion of the blood, in which the formed elements (blood cells) are suspended. Plasma is to be distinguished from serum, which is plasma from which the fibrinogen has been separated in the process of clotting. Called also blood plasma. adj., adj plasmat´ic, plas´mic.

Of the total volume of blood, 55 per cent is made up of plasma. It is a clear, straw-colored liquid, 92 per cent water, in which are contained plasma proteins, inorganic salts, nutrients, gases, waste materials from the cells, and various hormones, secretions, and enzymes. These substances are transported to or from the tissues of the body by the plasma.

Plasma obtained from blood donors is given to persons suffering from loss of blood or from shock to help maintain adequate blood pressure. Since plasma can be dried and stored in bottles, it can be transported almost anywhere, ready for immediate use after addition of the appropriate fluid. Plasma can be given to anyone, regardless of blood type. (See also transfusion.)

Plasma volume is sometimes measured in order to calculate the total blood volume. The most common method for determining plasma volume is by injection of a dye (T-1824, called Evans blue) into the circulating blood and, after the dye has been dispersed throughout the body, using the dilution of the dye to calculate the total blood volume.
antihemophilic human plasma normal human plasma that has been processed promptly to preserve the antihemophilic properties of the original blood; used for temporary correction of bleeding tendency in hemophilia.
blood plasma plasma (def. 2).
citrated plasma blood plasma treated with sodium citrate, which prevents clotting.
plasma exchange the removal of plasma from withdrawn blood (plasmapheresis) and retransfusion of the formed elements and type-specific fresh frozen plasma into the donor; done for removal of circulating antibodies or abnormal plasma components.
fresh frozen plasma plasma separated from whole blood and frozen within 8 hours; it contains all the coagulation factors.
plasma thromboplastin antecedent deficiency hemophilia C.

plas·ma

(plaz'mă),
1. The proteinaceous fluid (noncellular) portion of the circulating blood, as distinguished from the serum obtained after coagulation. Synonym(s): blood plasma
2. The fluid portion of the lymph.
3. The fluid in which the fat droplets of milk are suspended.
4. A "fourth state of matter" in which, owing to elevated temperature, atoms have broken down to form free electrons and more-or-less stripped nuclei; produced in the laboratory in connection with hydrogen fusion (thermonuclear) research.
5. Highly ionized gas.
Synonym(s): plasm
[G. something formed]

blood plasma

n.
The pale yellow or gray-yellow, protein-containing fluid portion of the blood in which the blood cells and platelets are normally suspended.

blood plasma

Etymology: AS, blod + Gk, plassein, to mold
the liquid portion of the blood, free of its formed elements and particles. Plasma represents approximately 50% of the total volume of blood and contains glucose, proteins, amino acids, and other nutritive materials; urea and other excretory products; and hormones, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals. Compare serum. See also blood, plasma protein, pooled plasma.

plas·ma

(plaz'mă)
1. The fluid (noncellular) portion of the circulating blood, as distinguished from the serum obtained after coagulation.
Synonym(s): blood plasma.
2. The fluid portion of the lymph.
3. A "fourth state of matter" in which, owing to elevated temperature (about 106 degrees), atoms have broken down to form free electrons and more or less stripped nuclei; produced in the laboratory in connection with hydrogen fusion (thermonuclear) research.
Synonym(s): plasm.
[G. something formed]

blood plasma

the watery matrix of BLOOD in which the blood cells are suspended. Plasma consists of about 90% water, acting as a solvent, and the following solutes;
  1. plasma proteins. The largest component (about 7% by weight), which is divided into three groups; albumin (55%), globulin (44.8%) and fibrinogen (0.2%). Plasma proteins are important in the maintenance of correct blood OSMOTIC POTENTIAL, the regulation of blood pH and (fibrinogen only) in BLOOD CLOTTING.
  2. NITROGENOUS WASTE substances that are carried from their site of production to the kidneys. These excretions consist mostly of UREA, but also have small amounts of ammonia and URIC ACID.
  3. inorganic salts of sodium, calcium, magnesium and potassium, the most common being sodium chloride. These salts form about 0.9% by weight and are responsible for maintenance of correct osmotic pressure and pH in the blood as well as maintenance of the proper physiological balance between the tissues and blood.
  4. organic nutrients. Among the most important are: (i) blood sugar, mainly glucose, derived from the breakdown of foods, either directly from the gut or from GLYCOGEN stored in the liver (glycogenolysis). The precise level of blood sugar is critical for the maintenance of homeostatis and is controlled by a negative FEEDBACK MECHANISM in which insulin plays a major part (see DIABETES). (ii) blood LIPIDS such as fats and cholesterol, derived from dietary intake or activity of the liver.
  5. hormones manufactures in the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.
  6. dissolved gases such as nitrogen (physiologically inert), small quantities of oxygen (mostly carried by haemoglobin in the ERYTHROCYTES) and carbon dioxide carried as bicarbonate (HCO-3) in the plasma (see CHLORIDE SHIFT).

blood plasma

the liquid phase of the blood, obtained by sedimentation or centrifugation of blood treated with anticoagulant. Is the equivalent of serum plus fibrinogen and consists of water, proteins, electrolytes and other solutes.