albumin

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albumin

 [al-bu´min]
1. any protein that is soluble in water and moderately concentrated salt solutions and is coagulable by heat.
2. serum albumin; the most abundant plasma protein, formed principally in the liver and constituting up to two thirds of the 6 to 8 per cent protein concentration in the plasma. (See accompanying table.) Albumin is responsible for much of the colloidal osmotic pressure of the blood, and thus is a very important factor in regulating the exchange of water between the plasma and the interstitial compartment (space between the cells). Because of hydrostatic pressure, water is forced through the walls of the capillaries into the tissue spaces. This flow of water continues until the osmotic pull of protein (albumin) molecules causes it to stop. A drop in the amount of albumin in the plasma leads to an increase in the flow of water from the capillaries into the interstitial compartment. This results in an increase in tissue fluid which, if severe, becomes apparent as edema. Albumin serves also as a transport protein carrying large organic anions, such as fatty acids, bilirubin, and many drugs, and also hormones, such as cortisol and thyroxine, when their specific binding globulins are saturated.

The presence of albumin in the urine (albuminuria) indicates malfunction of the kidney, and may accompany kidney disease or heart failure. A person with severe renal disease may lose as much as 20 to 30 g of plasma proteins in the urine in one day.

A decrease in the serum albumin level may occur with severe disease of the kidney. Other conditions such as liver disease, malnutrition, and extensive burns may result in serious decrease of plasma proteins.
albumin-globulin ratio the ratio of albumin to globulin in blood serum, plasma, or urine.
albumin human a preparation of human serum albumin, used as an artificial plasma extender and to increase bilirubin binding in hyperbilirubinemia.
iodinated I 125 albumin a radiopharmaceutical used in blood and plasma volume, circulation time, and cardiac output determinations, consisting of albumin human labeled with iodine-125.
iodinated I 131 albumin a radiopharmaceutical used in blood pool imaging and plasma volume determinations, consisting of albumin human labeled with iodine-131.
normal human serum albumin albumin human.
serum albumin albumin of the blood.

al·bu·min

(al-bū'min), [MIM*103600] Avoid the mispronunciation al'byū-men. Do not confuse this word with albumen.
A type of simple protein, varieties of which are widely distributed throughout the tissues and fluids of plants and animals; albumin is soluble in pure water, precipitable from solution by strong acids, and coagulable by heat in acid or neutral solution.
[L. albumen (-min-), the white of egg]

albumin

(ăl-byo͞o′mĭn)
n.
Any of a class of water-soluble proteins that are found in egg white, blood serum, milk, and many other animal and plant tissues. Also called albumen.

al·bu′mi·nous adj.

ALB

A gene on chromosome 4q13.3 that encodes albumin, the soluble, monomeric protein that comprises the protein in the serum. It serves as a carrier protein for steroids, fatty acids and thyroid hormones; binds well to water, Ca2+, Na2+, K+, fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and certain drugs; and plays a central role in stabilising extracellular fluid volume. It is produced in the liver as preproalbumin and partially cleaved before its release from the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Molecular pathology
ALB mutations cause familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinaemia.

albumin

Clinical chemistry A 66 kD heat-coagulable, acid-precipitable, water-soluble protein produced by the liver, which acts as an osmotic regulator, stabilizer, a nutritive substrate for tissues, binding and transport protein and, experimentally, a growth media supplement; albumin is the major–± 60% total–plasma protein; 40% of albumin in adults–± 125 g is intravascular; it is responsible for 75-80% of intravascular oncotic pressure; daily turnover is 10-16%; it is a major transport protein for large organic anions–eg, fatty acids, BR, drugs, enzymes, and hormones–eg, cortisol and thyroxine, when their specific binding globulins are saturated; serum albumin levels serve as a surrogate marker for liver disease; albumin is ↑ in dehydration and ↓ in liver disease, protein malnutrition, chronic disease, neoplasia, thyroid disease, burns, active inflammation, renal disease See Glycosylated albumin, Prealbumin, Proalbumin, Sonicated albumin, Timed collection Therapeutics Albumin is available as plasma protein fraction-50g/L; it carries no risk of hepatitis Indications Acute blood loss, burns, hypo– or analbuminemia Contraindications Malnutrition. See Colloids, Crystalloids. Cf Albumen, Ovalbumin Ref range Serum ♂. ;, 4.2-5.5 g/dL; ♀ 3.7-5.3 g/dL; urine, 3.9-24.4 mg/24 hrs; CSF, 15-45 mg/dL Transfusion medicine A colloid-type volume expander consisting of albumin in 2 standard concentrations–5% and 25% in a physiologic solution; albumin is prepared by heating to 60ºC for 10+ hrs, which inactivates both HBV and HIV, and is used in surgical blood management by hemodilution. See Hemodilution, Surgical blood management.

al·bu·min

(al-bū'min)
A type of simple protein, varieties of which are widely distributed throughout the tissues and fluids of plants and animals; albumin is soluble in pure water, precipitable from solution by strong acids, and coagulable by heat in acid or neutral solution.
[L. albumen (-min-), the white of egg]

albumin

A protein, soluble in water, synthesized in the liver and present in the blood PLASMA. Albumin, the most abundant blood protein, concentrates the blood and attracts water, thereby maintaining the circulating blood volume. Compare GLOBULINS.

albumin

a common form of water-soluble protein found, for instance, in blood plasma, muscle, egg white or ALBUMEN, milk and various plant tissues.

Albumin

A protein that is important in maintaining blood volume. Low albumin levels is one sign of Alport syndrome.

al·bu·min

(al-bū'min) [MIM*103600] Avoid the mispronunciation al'byū-men.
A type of simple protein, varieties of which are widely distributed throughout the tissues and fluids of plants and animals.
[L. albumen (-min-), the white of egg]