Subsequently, a brief warm-up was conducted on the isokinetic dynamometer consisting of five submaximal isometric contractions of the dominant plantar flexors
at 80% MVC (each lasting for 5 s).
The patient had a drop foot during swing phase, because of excessive and out-of-phase activation of the ankle plantar flexors
. Therefore, the phase-dependent muscle activation of the plantar flexors
was evaluated using the ratio of the integrated activity of the gastrocnemius during the swing phase to the activity of the muscle over the entire step cycle (swing and stance phase combined).
During the initial stance phase, the plantar flexors
performed negative work to absorb the GRF and generated the energy for the plantar flexion of ankle with peak power of 4930 [+ or -] 933 W.
The subjects were instructed to record the soreness levels of their knee extensors, knee flexors, plantar flexors
, hips, upper back, lower back, shoulders, elbow flexors, and elbow extensors on a questionnaire sheet while stretching specific muscles.
In this study, high ankle spasticity was defined as MAS scores of [greater than or equal to] 2 in the ankle plantar flexors
(i.e., gastrocnemius or soleus) muscles, and low ankle spasticity was defined by MAS scores of <2 in these same muscles.
(18) Plantaris has been considered to be an organ of proprioceptive function for the larger, more powerful plantar flexors
as it contains a high density of muscle spindles, Bardeen CR.
For instance, Alkner and Tesch (3) failed to counteract the loss of function on the plantar flexors
during 90 d of bed rest followed by a resistance training program; whereas, the atrophy in the knee extensors was fully reversed.
Older adults use their hip extensors more and their ankle plantar flexors
and knee extensors less than younger nondisabled individuals, showing an overall reorganization of joint torques .
Influence of extrinsic plantar flexors
on forefoot loading during heel rise.
One conceptual explanation for the preferential recruitment of the plantar flexors
of the foot and ankle is as follows.
The muscles involved in ascending phase, are hip flexors and knee extensors (psoas iliaque, quadriceps); hip extensors and knee flexors (large glutes, harmstrings); adductor and abductor muscles (medium glutes); ankle extensors and plantar flexors
(sural triceps, posterior tibial, peronier); ankle flexors and dorsal flexors (anterior tibial).
At presentation, the child was unable to stand without support with power of 2/5 in iliopsoas, 3/5 in extensor hallucis longus and 0/5 in ankle plantar flexors
on both sides.