cell wall

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Related to Plant cell wall: cellulose

wall

 [wawl]
a structure bounding or limiting a space or a definitive mass of material; called also paries.
cell wall a rigid structure that lies just outside of and is joined to the plasma membrane of plant cells and most prokaryotic cells, which protects the cell and maintains its shape.
chest wall the structures bordering the thorax that move during breathing, including the rib cage, diaphragm, and abdomen.

cell wall

1. the outer layer or membrane of some animal and plant cells; in the latter, it is mainly cellulose.
2. in bacteria, the rigid structure, usually containing a peptidoglycan layer, that provides osmotic protection and defines bacterial shape and staining properties.

cell wall

n.
The rigid outermost cell layer found in plants and certain algae, bacteria, and fungi but absent from animal cells.

cell wall

the structure that covers and protects the plasma membrane in some kinds of cells, such as certain bacteria and all fungi and plant cells. The cell walls of plant cells are composed of cellulose.

cell wall

(sel wawl)
The outer layer or membrane of some animal and plant cells; in the latter, it is mainly cellulose.

cell wall

a thick, rigid coat formed outside the CELL MEMBRANE of plants, fungi and most bacteria. The cell wall is responsible for the shape of the organism and for protecting internal parts of the cell from damage. The plant cell wall is composed mainly of CELLULOSE secreted by the protoplasm of the cell. Structurally it consists of cellulose fibres embedded in a matrix of pectin and other polysaccharides, rather like fibreglass. Each fibre is built up from cellulose molecules which form strands called micelles. These are grouped into microfibrils, several hundred of which form a fibre. Older cells may also produce a secondary wall inside the primary wall which is thicker and contains LIGNIN for extra strength. Such cells often die after producing the secondary wall, e.g. XYLEM vessel cells.

The cell wall of BACTERIA is made of PEPTIDOGLYCAN, either alone or combined with other substances, and is used to differentiate the major types of bacteria: Gram-positive and Gram-negative (see GRAM'S STAIN). In Gram-positive bacteria, the wall generally consists of many layers of peptidoglycan, giving a very rigid structure. TEICHOIC ACIDS are also present. In Gram-negative bacteria there is a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane. The peptidoglycan is attached to LIPOPROTEINS in the outer membrane. This membrane acts as a barrier to some ANTIBIOTICS, ENZYMES and so on; however, certain substances, such as nutrients, pass through. Part of the permeability of the membrane is due to PORINS. The ARCHAEA either lack cell walls or have unusual walls without peptidoglycan. In FUNGI a key component of most cell walls is CHITIN. The cell walls of YEASTS contain glucan and mannan. There may be additional layers, such as a CAPSULE, outside the cell wall.

cell wall

bimolecular lipid membrane that envelops the cell; contains receptors and pores through which small molecules can diffuse and larger molecules can be transported in and out of the cell

cell wall

(sel wawl)
1. Outer layer or membrane of some animal and plant cells.
2. In bacteria, the rigid structure that provides osmotic protection and defines bacterial shape and staining properties.

wall

a structure bounding or limiting a space or a definitive mass of material.

abdominal wall
see abdominal wall.
cell wall
a rigid structure that lies just outside of and is joined to the plasma membrane of plant cells and most prokaryotic cells, which protects the cell and maintains its shape.
wall chart
see calendar charts, shed sheet.
intestinal wall
composed of serosa, muscular tunic, the submucosa containing intestinal submucosal glands, and the mucosa of lining cells, goblet and enterochromaffin cells.
References in periodicals archive ?
Penicillium brasilianum as an enzyme factory; the essential role of feruloyl esterases for the hydrolysis of the plant cell wall.
Phenolic-carbohydrate complex in plant cell walls and their effect on lignocellulose utilization, p.
Enzymatic Modification of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides (Jens bro, Takahisa Hayashi and Jrn Dalgaard Mikkelsen)
As noted by Van Soest (1994), "the future of modeling on the nutritive quality of plant cell walls needs integration and the sorting out of colliding ideas".
Direct penetration of susceptible hosts by the infective hyphae of phytopathogenic fungi is facilitated by the production of cutinases (Agrios 1988), followed by softening or disintegration of host tissues by plant cell wall degrading enzymes produced by the pathogen (Kenaga 1974; Agrios 1988).
Beautifully illustrated in full colour throughout, this exceptional new volume provides cutting edge up-to-date information on such important topics as cell wall biology, composition and biosynthesis, glycosyltransferases, hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, enzymatic modification of plant cell wall polysaccharides, glycan engineering in transgenic plants, and polysaccharide nanobiotechnology.
Plant Cell Wall Breakdown by Anaerobic Microorganisms from the Mammalian Digestive Tract.
The plant cell wall is under attack from several angles.
Researchers describe its application to such matters as the molecular mechanism of secretory vesicle content expulsion during cell secretion, the plant cell wall and its constituents, cellular interactions of nanoscale drug deliver systems, inter-molecular forces of leukocyte adhesion molecules, and imaging soft surfaces.
Lignin-polysaccharide complexes of the plant cell wall and their effect on microbial degradation in the rumen.
It is well established that the cytoskeletal microtubules network play a key role in the morphogenesis of the plant cell wall by guiding the organisation of new cell wall material.
A knowledge of plant cell wall development and structure also could enable scientists to alter lignin and carbohydrates to make fodder more digestible for livestock and improve corn stover for use as a biofuel.