For the purpose of this piece and in understanding and researching victimology, four theories have been developed: victim precipitation theory, the lifestyle theory, deviant place theory
, and the routine activities theory.
These problems include the failure of the change paradigm in Aristotle--substantial change does not involve going down to prime matter and renewing with a different form; the inadequacy of Aristotle's place theory
of motion; nonlocality in quantum systems (visible on a macroscopic scale); and the probabilistic nature of reality, which is fundamental and not an artifact of our descriptions, to mention only a few.
Central place theory
(CPT) has always been one of the most extensively used theories in the field of economic geography and planning.
To test this assumption, a central place theory
analysis was used.
Christianity, explains Rohr, began to place theory
There are at least four explanations or theories of retail location: central place theory
, spatial interaction, land value or bid-rent theory, and the principle of minimum differentiation (Brown 1993; Clarkson et al.
In a manuscript that tends to bridge the gap between applied research and academic research, Hughes (2004) examines the correlation between county level pull factors and causal variables capturing the empirical implications of central place theory
(Christaller, 1966) such as population density, interstate access, per capita income, population, elderly population, and commuting patterns.
In a summarized form, "central place theory
suggests that the location of economic activities is a non-random occurrence and that the highest order places, typically urban centres, offer the greatest diversity in goods and services" (Barnes, Ledebur, 1998 in Daniels, 2007:335), transforming these cities in high attractors for residents, travellers and visitors.
These included central place theory
(Christaller, 1933), spatial interaction theory (Reilly 1929, 1931), and the principle of minimum differentiation (Hotelling, 1929).
Hendricks first explains and then applies four analytical models to twenty-five towns that arose in Virginia's backcountry between 1687 and 1783: 1) central place theory
(trade patterns determine a town's location); 2) mercantile or wholesaling theory (a place becomes economically connected with other places, and a town forms); 3) staple theory (the agricultural commodity of the area slows, as with tobacco, or facilitates, as with grains, urban development); and 4) functionalism (the town's purpose determines its success or failure).
Present implications of Losch's work are then addressed in ten papers on economic flows in a Loschian urban system, continuous flow models, the stability of hexagonal tessellations, Losch and economic geography after 1990, central place theory
after Christaller and Losch, technical progress and implicit dynamics of Loschian spatial demand, Loschian law of the N-n relationship, differentiation and fluctuation in the economies of regions, the impact of location and centrality on regional income, and nonprofits in a Loschian landscape.
Over half the book is taken up with explications of twentieth-century writers on cities, a lot on Kevin Lynch, maybe too little on Melvin Webber, but excellent on Central Place Theory