However, if pipecuronium
is used instead of rocuronium to elicit deep NMB and sugammadex 2 mg [kg.sup.-1] for reversal, costs can be reduced to the half.
Benzylisoquinolinium compounds, such as d-tubocurarine, metocurine, doxacurium, atracurium, and mivacurium, are more likely to cause direct mast cell degranulation than aminosteroid compounds such as pancuronium, vecuronium, rocuronium, and pipecuronium
. Cisatracurium, a benzylisoquinolinium compound and an isomer of atracurium, and succinylcholine have the lowest potency of direct mast cell activation .
The induction of anesthesia was carried out as follows: Intravenous (IV) injection of midazolam and/or etomidate, fentanyl or sufentanil, pipecuronium
bromide or rocuronium bromide.
Intravenous infusion was established and anaesthesia was induced with intravenous Thiopentone Sodium (3-7mg/kg) with Atropine (0.01- 0.02mg/kg) or Glycopyrrolate, (10-20microg/kg), intubated with a cuffed endotracheal tube, intubation facilitated by Succinylcholine (1.5-2mg/kg), Patient was maintained with Nitrousoxide 60%, Oxygen 40%, Narcotic analgesic, Fentanyl (1-2microg/kg), Non-depolarising muscle relaxant, Vecuronium bromide (0.04-0-06mg/kg) or Pipecuronium
0.05-O.O8mg/kg) and Halothane in traces (0.05- 1%).
They are Alcuronium, Atracurium (atrilix, tracrium, acuran), cisatracurium, daxacurium, mivacurium, pancurium (pavilon), vecuronium (norcurium), pipecuronium
, rocuronium (esmeron) and rapacuroniums.
However, compared with the placebo group, patients receiving magnesium required significantly less midazolam (7.1 mg/kg per day [0.1-47.9] vs 1.4 mg/kg per day [0.0-17.3]; p=0.026) and pipecuronium
(2.3 mg/kg per day [0.0-33.0] vs 0.0 mg/kg per day [0.0-14.8]; p=0.005) to control muscle spasms and associated tachycardia.
Quantitation of pancuronium, 3-desacetylpancuronium, vecuronium, 3-desacetylvecuronium, pipecuronium
and 3-desacetlypipecuronium in biological fluids by capillary gas chromatography using nitrogen-sensitive detection.
In contrast to neostigmine, sugammadex, just encapsulating aminosteroidal NMBA (rocuronium, vecuronium, pancuronium, pipecuronium
), is equally efective in inhalative and intravenous anaesthesia (47).