One of the modifications is clay intercalation using organic molecules and then the next step is pillarisation process using metal cationic [9-14].
Pillarisation and intercalation process of the clay was carried out by mixing bentonite, pillaring agent solution and intercalating agent (hexadecyltrimethylammonium-bromide; HDTMA-Br) with ratio [gram bentonite/ volume of solution] = 1 gram/50 mL.
The wider and the shifted band to the higher wavenumber in this region indicate that pillarisation process of the metal oxide is successful.
This is because of Zn metal penetrated in high amount during pillarisation process.
This paper focus on the exploration of the increment of catalytic performance of the modified bentonite by Fe and Zn pillarisation.
The palmitic acid yield shown in figure 3 is inline with the FTIR and XRD characterization, which is describe that pillarisation of bentonite using Fe metal causes increasing the pores size and stability of crystalline structure, whereas pillarisation of bentonite using Zn metal causes the destruction of crystalline structure during calcination process since Zn has low thermal stability.
It is pillarisation that now makes Belgian politics so difficult.
Indeed it is the recent increase in immigration that, more than anything else, highlights the folly of pillarisation, which in the context of new arrivals becomes ghettoisation by another name.
But this will only happen if they are willing to limit pillarisation and develop certain institutions and activities at national level.