Bordeaux and Champagne were out, as those larger houses making in-demand wines had enough capital to continue to pay for the chemical treatments that could prevent phylloxera
for a long time.
Grafting to phylloxera-tolerant rootstock has been practiced for almost 140 years to control phylloxera
. However, the adoption of bench-grafting machines in the 1980s has caused the problem of trunk disease infection of grafted vines and hence spread in newly planted vineyards from nurseries worldwide.
The accidental American-French hybrid is naturally resistant to both phylloxera
and Pierce's disease, a deadly bacterial pathogen found across the South.
Dentre as especies-praga que merecem destaque para o pais estao o pulgao Monellia caryella e as especies de filoxeras Phylloxera
devastatrix e Phylloxera
notabilis, pois sao especies que ocorrem tanto no Rio Grande do Sul, quanto nas regioes de origem da nogueira-peca, causando danos nas folhas das plantas.
After several years of panic, the cause of the epidemic was traced to a tiny American aphid, phylloxera
, which had been unwittingly brought to Europe by Victorian botanists on the roots of native American vine species.
Many vineyards were replanted with sauvignon blanc after the vine disease phylloxera
wiped out much of the pinot noir.
On the other hand, phylloxera
that has so viciously attacked the European grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) worldwide continues to munch its way from vine to vine.
It was a serendipitous time to introduce Spain to cava, since the nation's vineyards, much like thousands of others throughout Europe, were being decimated by the devastating effects of phylloxera
, an insect that attacks the leaves and roots of the vine, eventually killing it.
Just like the insect named phylloxera
had wiped out the wine industry between the 1860s and the 1890s, Panama Disease ( caused by a virulent strain of a fungus) is expected to exterminate the Cavendish bananas that America and Europe has daily for breakfast.
What type of plants are commonly attacked by the phylloxera
(Independent studies do indicate that Chilean wines have more antioxidants.) But the greatest benefit of Chile's geography may be the fact that its ocean and mountain borders have been effective in quarantining its grapes from the harmful effects of the parasitic bug, phylloxera
. Infamous for destroying vineyards around the world, phylloxera
is still non-existent in Chile.
Munson Viticulture and Enology Center, have included new passages on the phylloxera
period, Munson's views on agriculture and transportation and additional excerpts from Munson's writings.