Thus, generating sufficient electron-hole pairs, separating charges efficiently and providing active catalytic sides are the paramount factors for CO2 photoreduction
. Although, photoreduction
of CO2 shows great potential [86-87], at present one of the greatest drawbacks is the low conversion efficiency due to some associated major factors which bound the efficiency: (i) mismatching between the absorption ability of semiconductor and the solar spectrum; (ii) poor charge transfer separation efficiency; (iii) low solubility of CO2 molecule in water (approximately 33 mol in 1 ml of water at 100 kPa and room temperature); (iv) reverse reactions during reduction of CO2; and (v) competition reaction of water reduction to hydrogen .
Imbalance between oxygen photoreduction
and antioxidant capacities in Symbiodinium cells exposed to combined heat and high light stress.
Furthermore, after Ag photoreduction
on Ti[O.sub.2] surface, the intensity of main signal (located at 2[theta] = 25.4[degrees]) decreases indicating that the anchoring process did not change the characteristic crystal surface structure of Ti[O.sub.2]; these results are according to SEM assay .
After [Ar.sup.+] sputtering, the component "ZnO" became more intense (Zn[(OH).sub.2] to ZnO photoreduction
In addition, [N.sub.2] photoreduction
to nitrogenous compounds (e.g., N[H.sub.3]) in soils and sands as catalysts also is an important part of global [N.sub.2] cycle.
Mohamed, "Visible-light-driven MWCNT@Ti[O.sub.2] core-shell nanocomposites and the roles of MWCNTs on the surface chemistry, optical properties and reactivity in C[O.sub.2] photoreduction
," RSC Advances, vol.
D'Accolti et al., "Photoreduction
of carbon dioxide to formic acid in aqueous suspension: a comparison between phthalocyanine/Ti[O.sub.2] and porphyrin/Ti[O.sub.2] catalysed processes," Molecules, vol.
of methylene blue in acrylate media containing benzyl dimethyl ketal.
It also discusses other possible applications, such antifouling agents, controlling air pollution by degrading contaminants in the environment, self-cleaning of glasses and tiles in the presence of light or artificial light, green composites, wastewater treatment, hydrogen generation, and inactivation of microorganisms, as well as medical applications, photosplitting of water, photoreduction
of carbon dioxide, and mimicking photosynthesis.
After mild stirring for 40 min under visible light illumination, the color of the mixture solution turned into light-reddish, indicating the successful photoreduction
from gold complexes to gold nanoparticles.
Superoxide radical ([O.sub.2.sup.-]) was generated from the photoreduction
of riboflavin and was deducted by nitro blue tetrazolium dye (NBT) reduction method.