mosaic

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mosaic

 [mo-za´ik]
a pattern made of numerous small pieces fitted together; in genetics, occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations each having a different chromosome complement.

mo·sa·ic

(mō-zā'ik),
1. Inlaid; resembling inlaid work.
2. The juxtaposition in an organism of genetically different tissues; it may occur normally (as in lyonization, q.v.), or pathologically, as an occasional phenomenon. From somatic mutation (gene mosaicism), an anomaly of chromosome division resulting in two or more types of cells containing different numbers of chromosomes (chromosome mosaicism), or chimerism (cellular mosaicism).
[Mod. L. mosaicus, musaicus, pertaining to the Muses, artistic]

mosaic

/mo·sa·ic/ (mo-za´ik)
1. a pattern made of numerous small pieces fitted together.
2. in genetics, an individual or cell cultures having two or more cell lines that are karyotypically or genotypically distinct but are derived from a single zygote.
3. in embryology, the condition in the fertilized eggs of some species whereby the cells of early stages have developed cytoplasm which determines the parts that are to develop.
4. in plant pathology, a viral disease characterized by mottling of the foliage.

mosaic

(mō-zā′ĭk)
n.
Biology An individual exhibiting mosaicism.

mo·sa′i·cist (mō-zā′ĭ-sĭst) n.

mosaic

[mōzā′ik]
Etymology: L, Musa, goddess of the arts
1 an individual or organism that developed from a single zygote but that has two or more kinds of genetically different cell populations. Mosaicism may result from a mutation, crossing over, or, more commonly in humans, nondisjunction of chromosomes during early embryogenesis, which causes a variation in the number of chromosomes in the cells. The type of chromosomal aberration and the fraction of cells that are affected depend on the cleavage stage at which the causative event occurred. Because monosomic cells are nonviable, except in X monosomic conditions, most mosaic conditions caused by nondisjunction in humans represent a mixture of normal and trisomic cells, regardless of whether an autosome or the sex chromosomes are involved. The degree of clinical involvement depends on the type of tissue containing the abnormality and may vary from near normal to full manifestation of a syndrome, such as Down syndrome or Turner's syndrome. Compare chimera. See also monosomy, sex chromosome mosaic, trisomy.
2 a fertilized ovum that undergoes determinate cleavage. See also mosaic development. mosaicism, n.
Referring to a sharply-defined tesselated patchwork of one ‘jig-saw’-shaped pattern imposed upon another of different color, tissue apearance or radiologic density
Genetics An individual with 2 or more genotypically or karyotypically distinct cell lines, arising from a single zygote by somatic mutation, crossing-over, or nondisjunction during mitotic division, an event more common in older mothers
Example Normal female mammal heterozygous for different alleles on the X chromosome; because of X chromosome inactivation, such females consist of two cell types, each with a different X chromosome inactivated, which results in a minor, epigenetic difference, in contrast to mosaic Turner syndrome in which some cells have no X chromosome at all
Gynaecology The mosaic pattern refers to vascular changes of interconnecting vessels resulting in a cobblestone or honeycomb surface appearance by colposcopy. Because the pattern is often associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), a cervix with a mosaic pattern should be biopsied
Informatics A proprietary web browser (Mosaic), which was the first multiplatform browser for Macintosh, Windows, and UNIX. It was partially responsible for the Web’s explosive growth, but has long since faded into obscurity

mosaic

adjective A patchwork of one sharply-defined 'jig-saw'-shaped pattern imposed upon another of different color, tissue pattern or radiologic density noun Genetics An individual with 2 or more genotypically or karyotypically distinct cell lines, arising from a single zygote by somatic mutation, crossing-over, or nondisjunction during mitotic division. See Chimera, Freemartin Ob/Gyn A vascular change of interconnecting vessels resulting in a cobblestone or honeycomb surface appearance by colposcopy, the mosaic pattern is often associated with CIN and mandates biopsy.

mo·sa·ic

(mō-zā'ik)
1. Inlaid; resembling inlaid work.
2. The juxtaposition in an organism of genetically different tissues; it may occur normally (as in lyonization, q.v.), or pathologically, as an occasional phenomenon.
[Mod. L. mosaicus, musaicus, pertaining to the Muses, artistic]

mosaic

  1. any organism exhibiting a mixture of cells of different genetic makeup, such as a GYNANDROMORPH. See INACTIVE-X HYPOTHESIS. Plants showing this phenomenon are known as CHIMAERAS (1).
  2. a pattern of leaf-arrangement in a tree to maximize the exposure of the leaves to sunlight and thus the level of photosynthesis.

Mosaic

A term referring to a genetic situation, in which an individual's cells do not have the exact same composition of chromosomes. In Down syndrome, this may mean that some of the individual's cells have a normal 46 chromosomes, while other cells have an abnormal 47 chromosomes.

mosaic

a pattern made of numerous small pieces fitted together; in genetics, the occurrence in an animal of two or more cell populations, each having a different chromosome complement, e.g. XY/XXY mosaic.

mosaic animals
all the genotypes arise from a single zygotic genotype because of chromosomal loss or mitotic nondisjunction.
ecological mosaic
a pattern of interspersed ecosystems of similar size and on a recurring basis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Consider this virtually unintelligible (to this reader anyway) passage from the chapter on photomosaics (the process of matching individual aerial photos to form a more comprehensive view):
The red pigment was heavily coated in dust and not easy to distinguish from the background; however, digital image enhancement of the resulting photomosaic provided a usefully clear representation of the complete complex motif--much better than being there in fact.
For musically-minded fans there's a fantastic jigsaw tribute to the Fab Four with The Beatles Sgt Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band Photomosaic (WH Smith, pounds 9.
The low-level forward oblique imagery gathered for the Alliance right-of-way is expected to be converted to a continuous photomosaic, indexed by kilometer post and frame-grabbed at distances appropriate to ensure accurate identification of surface type and condition.
Voyager 2's precicous treasure-trove of pictures of Miranda numbers barely a dozen frames (many of which have been combined into the preliminary photomosaic above), but they are more than enough to provide clear evience of Miranda's exciting -- and mystifying -- past.
Odyssey completed an extensive pre-disturbance survey of the "Black Swan" site, which included recording over 14,000 digital still images which were used to create a photomosaic of the site.
Following the non-disturbance survey, measurement and photography of surface features, Odyssey completed a non-disturbance photomosaic of the site consisting of approximately 2,800 high-resolution still images taken at an elevation of 2.
Garrett Mitchell from the University of Maryland worked in the lab of marine volcanologist Adam Soule, developing a photomosaic of seafloor images from the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the site of a recent undersea volcanic eruption.
Passersby who viewed the newly unveiled Photomosaic were treated to samples of Pringles' new Sweet Mesquite Barbecue potato crisps and new Pringles Snack Stacks(TM), a single-serving size perfect for lunches.
The archaeological pre-disturbance work included a detailed photomosaic of the shipwreck site and debris fields.
edu/5th, along with a series of weekly word-and-picture portraits of WHOI employees through the years, and anniversary merchandise, including a jacket, shirts, shorts, a pen, a mug, a keychain, and a photomosaic poster combining 4,500 photos from the Archives into an image of the Institution's first open-ocean research Vessel, Atlantis.
The striking 4 x 5-foot "Picture of America" was created for Fujifilm by noted Photomosaic artist Rob Silver.