phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase


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phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase

An enzyme that catalyses a two-step reaction: formation of carboxyphosphate and enolate form of pyruvate, and carboxylation of enolate with the release of phosphate. It replenishes oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle when operating in reverse. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is the recommended name for EC 4.1.1.31, orthophosphate:oxaloacetate carboxy-lyase (phosphorylating).

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase  has also been used for:
(1) Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP), EC 4.1.1.32 (GTP:oxaloacetate carboxy-lyase (transphosphorylating));
(2) Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pyrophosphate), EC 4.1.1.38 (pyrophosphate:oxaloacetate carboxy-lyase (transphosphorylating)); and
(3) Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP), EC 4.1.1.49 (ATP:oxaloacetate carboxy-lyase (transphosphorylating)).
References in periodicals archive ?
Partial purification and characterization of root nodule phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. Plant Physiology, 75: 261-264.
Cytokinin is required to induce the nitrogen-dependent accumulation of mRNAs for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and carbonic anhydrase in detached maize leaves.
Photosynthetic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases. Plant Physiol, 51: 439-447.
Characterization and functional analysis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase genes in rice.
Expression of maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in transgenic tobacco: effects on biochemistry and physiology.
Activities of chlorophyllase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and ribulose-1, 5- bisphosphate carboxylase in the primary leaves of soybean during senescence and drought.
Protein turnover as a component in the light/dark regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase protein-serine kinase activity in C4 plants.
Induction of the inactivation and degradation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in maize leaves by freezing and thawing.
Abbreviations: DAS, days after sowing; DM, dry matter; Rubisco, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase; PEPC, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase; [WUE.sub.T,S], transpirational water-use efficiency, based on shoot dry matter; [WUE.sub.T,SR], transpirational water-use efficiency, based on shoot and root dry matter; [Delta], carbon-isotope discrimination; [p.sub.i]/[p.sub.a], ratio of external to internal concentration of [CO.sub.2].
In that growth chamber study, correlations between nodule number, nodule fresh weight (NFW), plant dry weight (PDW), nodule soluble protein content, nodule glutamate synthase activity, and nodule phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity in soybean plants were observed only 17 d after inoculation.
Abbreviations: A, net [CO.sub.2] assimilation rate; [G.sub.r], root hydraulic conductance; [g.sub.s], stomatal conductance; [G.sub.t], total plant hydraulic conductance; NAD-ME, NAD-malic enzyme; NADP-ME, NADP-malic enzyme; NUE, nitrogen-use efficiency; PEPC, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase; PNUE, photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency; Rubisco, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; [[Psi].sub.L], leaf water potential.
Factors such as photorespiration (Rooney, 1988) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity in the developing kernels (Willmer and Johnston 1976) may have induced the lower CID values of the kernels.
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