This compound is an organic osmolyte protecting cells from osmotic stress and a precursor of inositolphosphoglycans, phosphatidylinositols, and phosphoinositides that are involved in signal transduction (1).
Characterization of the null murine sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter 1 (Smit1 or Slc5 a3) phenotype: Myo-inositol rescue is independent of expression of its cognate mitochondrial ribosomal protein subunit 6 (Mrps6) gene and of phosphatidylinositol levels.
Increased interest in the study of PTEN since those early discoveries has revealed how its function in the cell goes beyond the simple regulation of 3' phosphorylated phosphatidylinositols at the plasma membrane.
PTEN is a lipid phosphatase whose action targets phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3),  a component of the lipid cellular membrane.
The tumor suppressor, PTEN/MMAC1, dephosphorylates the lipid second messenger, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate,J Biol Chem 1998; 273:13375-8.
PKC[zeta] is also activated by lipid components, such as phosphatidylinositols (PIs), phosphatidic acid, arachidonic acid, and ceramide.
NADPH oxidase is closely linked with phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase (PI3K) signaling [10, 11].
Kim et al., "Platelet-derived growth factor-induced [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] production requires the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
The PH domain is responsible for binding with phosphatidylinositols, showing the importance for the regulation of membrane targeting.
Johansson et al., "Short syndrome with partial lipodystrophy due to impaired phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase signaling," The American Journal of Human Genetics, vol.
(1,2) These proteins are expressed on the cell surface by being anchored to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane via the phosphatidylinositol (PI) moiety and termed GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs).
Abbreviations: C: carboxyl; CHO: Chinese hamster ovary; Dol-P-Man: dolichol-phosphate mannose; EBV: Epstein-Barr virus; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; EtNP: ethanolamine phosphate; GalNAc: N-acetylgalactosamine; GlcN: glucosamine; GlcNAc: N-acetylglucosamine; GPI: glycosylphosphatidylinositol; GPI-AP: GPI-anchored protein; GPI-GnT: GPI-GlcNAc transferase; HPMRS: hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome; IGD: inherited GPI deficiency; Man: mannose; MCAHS: multiple congenital anomalies with hypotonia and seizures; N: amino; PI: phosphatidylinositol; PI-PLC: PI-specific phospholipase C; PNH: paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.