phosphate

(redirected from Phosphate group)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.

phosphate

 [fos´fāt]
any salt or ester of phosphoric acid. adj., adj phosphat´ic.

Phosphates are widely distributed in the body, the largest amounts being in the bones and teeth. They are continually excreted in the urine and feces and must be replaced in the diet. Inorganic phosphates function as buffer salts to maintain the acid-base balance in blood, saliva, urine, and other body fluids. The principal phosphates in this buffer system are monosodium and disodium phosphate. Organic phosphates, in particular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), take part in a series of reversible reactions involving phosphoric acid, lactic acid, glycogen, and other substances, which furnish the energy expended in muscle contraction. This is thought to occur through the hydrolysis of the so-called high-energy phosphate bond present in ATP, phosphocreatine, and certain other body compounds.

phos·phate (P),

(fos'fāt),
A salt or ester of phosphoric acid. For individual phosphates not listed here, see under the name of the base.

phosphate

/phos·phate/ (fos´fāt) any salt or ester of phosphoric acid.phosphat´ic

phosphate (PO43-)

[fos′fāt]
1 an anion of phosphoric acid.
2 a salt of phosphoric acid. Phosphates are extremely important in living cells, particularly in the storage and use of energy and the transmission of genetic information within a cell and from one cell to another. See also adenosine diphosphate, adenosine triphosphate, phosphorus.

phos·phate

(fos'fāt)
1. A salt or ester (especially inorganic) of phosphoric acid.
2. The trivalent ion, PO43-.

phosphate

any salt or ester of any PHOSPHORIC ACID.

Phosphate

An organic compound necessary for mineralization of bone and other key cellular processes.
Mentioned in: Hyperparathyroidism

phosphate

any salt or ester of phosphoric acid.
1. Phosphates are widely distributed in the body, the largest amounts being in the bones and teeth. They are continually excreted in the urine and feces, and must be replaced in the diet. Inorganic phosphates function as buffer salts to maintain the acid-base balance in blood, saliva, urine and other body fluids. The principal phosphates in this buffer system are monosodium and disodium phosphate. Organic phosphates, in particular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), are used to store the chemical bond energy released during the oxidation of compounds such as glycogen or fatty acids, which may later be expended in muscle contraction. This is thought to occur through the hydrolysis of the so-called high-energy phosphate bond present in ATP, phosphocreatine and certain other body compounds. See also hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphatemia.
2. used extensively in agricultural industry as fertilizers and organic compounds as cleaning agents.

phosphate binders
usually aluminum carbonate or hydroxide preparations, used to bind phosphates and limit their absorption from the intestine. Used in the treatment of the hyperphosphatemia of renal failure.
phosphate buffer
important phosphate-containing buffers.
phosphate buffered saline
a special phosphate buffered saline used in tissue cultures and for the storage and transport of bovine embryos. Abbreviated PBS.
phosphate calculi
see struvite urolith.
dietary phosphate
supplementation of the diet with phosphate in some form is a very common practice in farm animals. Materials used include rock phosphate (defluorination may be necessary), sodium dihydrogen phosphate produced by the agricultural chemical industry, calcium triphosphate and bone meal or flour.
inorganic phosphate
any salt of phosphoric acid.
phosphate retention
a phenomenon resulting from reduced glomerular filtration; contributes to a chronic hypocalcemic state.
phosphate ridge
see mineralization front.
phosphate rock
phosphate yielding endonucleases
a class of ribonuclease involved in the usually fairly rapid turnover of RNA in the cell that degrades RNA by cleavage of the phosphodiester bonds within the molecule.
References in periodicals archive ?
The reader is probably aware that there are four such subparts, and that each of the four consists of a heterocyclic nitrogen-containing molecule (the nitrogenous base, or just "base," in context); the base covalently linked to a 5 carbon sugar (2'--deoxyribose), with the base plus sugar being referred to as a "nucleoside"; and the nucleoside with the covalent addition of one, two, or three phosphate groups to the 5' carbon, which respectively make up a nucleoside mono-, di-, or triphosphate (collectively referred to as a "nucleotide").
Phosphate group requirement for mitogenic activation of lymphocytes by an extracellular phosphopolysaccharide from Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp.
The enzyme that attaches a phosphate group to glucose in cancer cells is hexokinase II (HK II), bound to the VDAC.
A nucleotide's phosphate group can bind with the ribose molecule in such a way as to form a ring with it.
First the ATP removes one phosphate group from its tail and attaches it to the phosphoglycerate to make 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate.
Separate chapters list protection for the hydroxyl group, phenols and catechols, the carbonyl group, the carboxyl group, the thiol group, the amino group, and the phosphate group.
phosphorylation, a process where the addition of a phosphate group has been
The phosphate coupling on the surface of the PMS has been confirmed by the peaks corresponding to phosphate group viewed at 1073, 1023, 984 [cm.
gamma]), [alpha] phosphate is adjacent to one phosphate group ([beta])
The fiber has a composition comprising an aliphatic polyester and 1-50% by weight of one compound selected from the group consisting of a polyether having a C2 to C4 alkylene group, their derivatives, an organic compound having a sulfo group, an organic compound having a sulfate group, an organic compound having a carboxyl group, an organic compound having a phosphate group, an organic compound having an amino group, an organic compound having an amido group and an organic compound having an amino group and an amido group.
For the donor probe, the fluorescent dye at the 3' end blocks PCR extension, whereas for the acceptor probe, a nonfluorescent blocking agent, typically a phosphate group, is linked to the 3' hydroxyl of the terminal base.
This book shows how to use mass spectrometry to determine whether or not a protein has been correctly modified by the addition of a phosphate group.