Causes and consequences of phoretic
behavior in the pseudoscorpion Dinocheirus arizonensis (Pseudoscorpionida: Chernetidae).
A review of the phoretic
relationship between Mallophaga (Phthiraptera: Insecta) and Hippoboscidae (Diptera: Insecta).
Only two previously documented instances were found of phoretic
uropodids on lizards, both in the Australian Region and both on skinks.
The natural history of a phoretic
sphaerocerid Diptera fauna.
For example, inaccuracies in the measurement of the degree of host specificity among various phoretic
and parasitic species of nematodes could easily confound estimates of [N.
This was an unfortunate classification, because given the title of Beier's paper, ever since then the interaction between pseudoscorpions and packrats has been regarded as phoretic
in nature and not given further consideration, even though the pseudoscorpions are not riding on the rats for dispersal purposes.
Notes on conopid flies, including insect host, plant and phoretic
It is unlikely, therefore, that adult Mormotomyia are phoretic
on bats or birds, although confirmation of this awaits examination of captured, living bats.
Although all these studies reported the association of non-symbiotic bacteria with entomopathogenic nematodes, none have described either the virulence of these associated bacteria, the phoretic
ability of the nematode to transport these bacteria into the insect, how they are transported, or the level of association between the nematode and the bacterium.
An SEM study of leg features of adults, specifically the form and structure of the tarsal claw and pulvillus, was also conducted and these were compared to the same structures in examples of the true bat fly ectoparasitic families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae, and to the phoretic
Although the primary function of phoresy is dispersal, phoretic
associations may be complex (Binns 1982; O'Connor 1982; Houck & O'Connor 1991).
Adults emerge inside the host nest, mating occurs outside, females lay eggs into or on plant tissue, and the very mobile first-instar larvae (planidia) are presumed to attach to foraging ant workers (or to intermediate hosts) for passive phoretic
transport to the ant nest (Clausen 1940; Heraty 2000).