However, Makkar and Becker  reported that the presence of a cocktail of anti-nutritional factors like phorbol esters
, saponins, tannins, phytates, lectins, hydrocyanides and oxalates prevent its use in animal feeding; phorbol ester
is considered the most toxic compound.
curcas cake possesses antinutritional and toxic factors, such as curcin and phorbol esters
, that limit the use of the cake in food .
"Potential of Using Phorbol Esters
as an Insecticide against Spodoptera Frugiperda." Industrial Crops and Products 38 (July): 50-53.
cannot be utilized as animal feed due to the presence of toxic phorbol esters
. However biological treatments may alleviate the concentration of phorbol esters
to a safe level.
will receive complete ownership and all interest in the indication, patents and intellectual property related to treatment of Hodgkin's Lymphoma, utility patent application number 61998397, entitled 'Compositions and methods of use of Phorbol Esters
for the treatment of Hodgkin's Lymphoma'.
Jatropha curcas is a non-edible vegetable oil due to the presence of phorbol esters
which accounts for its toxicity.
Vlietinck, "[sup.13]C NMR spectroscopy of phorbol esters
," Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, vol.
Not content just to cause pain and blindness, the plant has long-term ideas as well: it contains phorbol esters
, which are not only skin irritants but actually promote cancer development, suppress the immune system and activate dormant Epstein-Barr virus.
Tumor-promoting phorbol esters
induce metamorphosis and multiple head formation in the hydroid Hydractinia.
TPA, a kind of phorbol esters
, is one of the main irritant compounds in Euphorbiaceae plants.
Phytochemical studies of members of the family Euphorbiaceae revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, diterpenes, and phorbol esters
(Bagalkotkar et al., 2006; Jassbi, 2006).