However, Makkar and Becker  reported that the presence of a cocktail of anti-nutritional factors like phorbol esters
, saponins, tannins, phytates, lectins, hydrocyanides and oxalates prevent its use in animal feeding; phorbol ester
is considered the most toxic compound.
However biological treatments may alleviate the concentration of phorbol esters
to a safe level.
It was reported on Tuesday that the contract has been signed for ownership of its investigational cancer patent assignment using Phorbol Esters
in the treatment of Hodgkin's Lymphoma.
Jatropha curcas is a non-edible vegetable oil due to the presence of phorbol esters
which accounts for its toxicity.
Not content just to cause pain and blindness, the plant has long-term ideas as well: it contains phorbol esters
, which are not only skin irritants but actually promote cancer development, suppress the immune system and activate dormant Epstein-Barr virus.
Tumor-promoting phorbol esters
induce metamorphosis and multiple head formation in the hydroid Hydractinia.
TPA, a kind of phorbol esters
, is one of the main irritant compounds in Euphorbiaceae plants.
Phytochemical studies of members of the family Euphorbiaceae revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, diterpenes, and phorbol esters
(Bagalkotkar et al.
v-Ha-ras transgene abrogates the initiation step in mouse skin tumorigenesis: effects of phorbol esters
and retinoic acid.
Direct activation of PKC by phorbol esters
(PMA) or a PMA analog, phorbol 12, 13 dibutyrate, desensitizes the receptor.
In previous studies, the Johns Hopkins researchers described how the lung's epithelial cells respond to a number of carcinogens and pro-carcinogens-including phorbol esters
, retinoic-acid deprivation, and tobacco smoke--by changing into squamous cells.
Once CD69 is expressed in response to submitogenic doses of phorbol esters
, the addition of mAbs against CD69 triggers cell proliferation .