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The parent alcohol of the cocarcinogens, which are 12,13(9,9a) diesters of phorbol found in croton oil; the hydrocarbon skeleton is a cyclopropabenzazulene; phorbol esters mimic 1,2-diacylglycerol as activators of protein kinase C.
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Phorbol ester (PMA, Sigma-Aldrich) was used as the activator of NF-[kappa]B pathway.
In this sense, studies have been performed attempting to decrease the seed concentration of phorbol ester, considered the main toxic compound of physic nut (Begg & Gaskin, 2009), thus allowing the exploitation of the cake after oil extraction.
curcas seeds are cursin and phorbol ester. Anti-nutritional factors such as Trypsin inhibitor, lectin, phytate, tannis, phenols, and saponins are also present, posing a major hindrance in utilizing curcas seeds in animal feed (Makkar et al., 2008).
Chimeric protein 2 (CHN2) regulating Rac GTPase activity is the receptor for diglyceride and phorbol ester. [9] Rac GTPase is a member of the Rho-GTPase family that exert important influences on the development of neural networks and the formation of neurites and growth cones.
However, Makkar and Becker [5] reported that the presence of a cocktail of anti-nutritional factors like phorbol esters, saponins, tannins, phytates, lectins, hydrocyanides and oxalates prevent its use in animal feeding; phorbol ester is considered the most toxic compound.
Oxidative burst of cultured BM-DCs (24-well, 1 x [10.sup.6] cells/well, day 8) was induced by phorbol ester dibutyrate (PDBu, 10 [micro]M) (Sigma-Aldrich, Steinheim, Germany) or LPS (50 [micro]g/ml) (Calbiochem) using L-012- (100 [micro]M-) enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) in PBS (1mM [Ca.sup.2+]/[Mg.sup.2+]) on a Centro plate reader (Berthold Technology, Bad Wildbad, Germany).
The daily phorbol ester dose ingested by the animals was as follows: 2.21 (II); 2.34 (III); 2.75 (IV); 0.05 (V); 0.13 (VI); and 0.15 (VII) mg/kg.
Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modulation of phorbol ester skin tumor promotion.
Induction of tumors of the liver, lung, ovary and adrenal in adult mice after brief maternal gestational exposure to inorganic arsenic: promotional effects of postnatal phorbol ester exposure on hepatic and pulmonary, but not dermal cancers.