Genetic characterization of Bhanja virus and Palma virus, two tick-borne phleboviruses
. Virus Genes.
Species and gender of sandflies processed for phleboviruses
and Leishmania Species Sandflies Pools Male Female Male Female P.
Sand fly-borne phleboviruses
have been studied mainly in the Mediterranean region.
We reviewed all the published data for sand fly-borne phleboviruses
in the Balkan Peninsula to provide a comprehensive view of the current situation and of the public health effect on humans and vertebrate animals in the region.
We tested cattle and sheep serum for neutralizing antibodies using the virus microneutralization assay, described for phleboviruses
(7) in parallel with TOSV strain MRS2010-4319501 and SFSV strain Sabin.
However, infection with 2 other phleboviruses
, mosquitoborne Rift Valley fever virus and tick-associated severe fever with thrombo-cytopenia syndrome virus, causes severe disease.
These data and the experimental inoculation data in our study indicate that the interferon response is critical for controlling pathologic changes of mice infected with phleboviruses
The presence of an NSs protein in phleboviruses
and orthobunyaviruses provides interferon resistance required to infect vertebrates efficiently (3,4).
similar to ABIV may be present in bird populations in the southern areas of Africa and South America.
Two new phleboviruses
recently detected in Ixodes ticks in the northeastern United States are genetically unrelated to HRTV but raise the possibility that additional undiscovered phleboviruses
Reverse transcription nested PCR was conducted by using generic primers for flaviviruses, enteroviruses, and phleboviruses
. PCR for phleboviruses
(2) resulted in a PCR product of the expected size, and the sequence was most closely related to those of isolates belonging to the Sandfly fever Naples virus (SFNV) species (Figure).
The Table summarizes the genetic and sequence features of the genome segments and deduced proteins of HIGV and several selected phleboviruses
. From the sequence comparison, it is evident that HIGV is a new member of the genus Phlebovirus and that it is most closely related to the newly discovered zoonotic members of the genus, SFTSV and HRTV.