Long-term interdisciplinary data have indicated that adult female lemon shark and blacktip shark are philopatric and, therefore, multiple cohorts of juveniles use localized nursery habitats (Feldheim et al.
Whether the females > males ratio is the result of female manipulation of the sex ratio of their offspring (Bond et al, 2003), sex-based variability in recruitment and survival (Bryja et al, 2005), population density and the nature of interaction between philopatric females (Lambin, 1994), or dominant males disallowing subordinate males to breed (Jannett, 1981) is less clear.
Four predictions were proposed: 1) Carollia has preferences for plants of the genus Piper, 2) Piper and other plants are eaten in similar proportions by other frugivores, 3) similarities in bat morphology are reflected in their diet preferences, and 4) Carollia populations are philopatric, in accordance with pipilongo availability.
As females are typically the more philopatric sex in waterfowl, analyzing a female-biased dataset allows for making inferences on female philopatry, whereas a male-biased sampling scheme may obscure any genetic signature of philopatry where males are the dispersing sex.
This study had three aims: to test whether patterns of scent marking among cubs (1) varied with month; (2) differed between males and females; (3) differed between individuals remaining philopatric or dispersing.