The genetic distance matrix (Table 5) based on Nei's (1978) unbiased genetic distance was used to produce a UPGMA phenogram
[ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 6 OMITTED].
Relationships [TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 2 OMITTED] among all populations were assessed by using the resulting distance matrix of net nucleotide divergence to construct a neighbor-joining phenogram
clustering all dwarf and normal morphotypes using the NEIGHBOR program of PHYLIP.
Subsequently, a sequential, agglomerative, hierarchical, nested (SAHN) clustering procedure, based on the unweighted pairgroup method and arithmetic average (UPGMA) using the NTSYS-pc software, was used to produce a cluster phenogram
of the 143 accessions of Phalaris from Jaccard's matrix of similarity coefficients.
In the first analysis, I constructed a UPGMA phenogram
(Sokal and Michener 1958), using Nei's (1972) distances to cluster the 18 populations (for this analysis, I used the program "Genes in Populations," designed by B.
was produced from the output of NEIGHBOR using TREETOOL (Maciukenas et al., 1991).
A UPGMA phenogram
(Sneath and Sokal 1973) and a Neighbor-joining tree (Saitou and Nei 1987) were constructed from distance estimates with the PHYLIP version 3.5 computer package (Felsenstein 1993).
For instance, the UPGMA phenogram
revealed that the Choco and Central American populations are more similar (Hackett 1993).
depicting similarity among haplotypes [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 2C OMITTED] shows Verde and Gila drainage haplotypes clustering into two distinct and divergent groups.
The resulting pairwise matrix of net nucleotide divergence among populations was used to construct a phenogram
by clustering the populations analyzed in this study as well as others from Beringia surveyed previously for mtDNA variation (Bernatchez and Dodson 1991).
However, a UPGMA phenogram
of Nei's genetic distance (based on allozyme frequencies) between and among gigantea and altissima populations indicated that, with the exception of a single gigantea fly population, populations clustered into two groups defined by host association rather than geographic location (Waring et al.
for sprouting, flowering (scores according to Ribeiro and Castro, 1986) and fruiting (number of fruits per plant) of Campomanesia adamantium between September and December 2016 in Ipameri-GO.
To analyze the relationships among the trees, a phenogram
was obtained based on King's distances (KING et al., 1993) and clustered by Neighbor-Joining using the software Treecon.