Furthermore, by scanning electron microscopy, abundant coccolithophores have been found in the Biluo Co oil shale, which indicates the contribution of the abundant phenanthrene series.
Based on the methyl phenanthrene index , the maturity parameter utilizes the relative abundance of phenanthrene and methyl phenanthrene yields calculated vitrinite reflectance (VRc%) ranging from 0.
The compounds mainly fall into the following 12 aromatic hydrocarbon series: naphthalene (m/z 128, m/z 142, m/z 156, m/z 170, m/z 184, m/z 198), phenanthrene (m/z 178, m/z 192, m/z 206, m/z 220), benzopyrene (m/z 252), fluoranthene (m/z 202, m/z 216), dibenzothiophene (m/z 184, m/z 198, m/z 212, m/z 226), benzonaphthothiophene (m/z 234), dibenzofuran (m/z 168, m/z 182, m/z 196), fluorene (m/z 166, m/z 180, m/z 194), chrysene (m/z 228, m/z 242, m/z 256), biphenyl (m/z 154, m/z 168, m/z 182), triaromatic sterane (m/z 231) and benzohopane (m/z 191).
The distribution of total naphthalenes and phenanthrenes in the coal and shale extracts from the Mamu Formation indicates that the total sum of the phenanthrenes and their isomers was greater than that of the naphthalenes in all the samples analyzed (Fig.
The concentration of aromatic compounds, such as naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, dibenzothiophenes and their structural isomers are at present attracting increasing attention as maturity indicators for coals and shale source rocks.
Several PAHs that were not detected during the four-engine run-up test--for example, the methyl-substituted phenanthrenes and anthracenes, as well as fluoranthene and pyrene--were detected in the integrated-air samples collected downwind from the AGE units.
Although TWAs for specific PAHs are not given in these workplace standards, the OSHA analytical method for coal tar pitch volatiles specifies target concentrations for selected PAHs, including phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene (33).