pharyngealize

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pharyngealize

(fə-rĭn′jə-līze)
tr.v. pharyngea·lized, pharyngea·lizing, pharyngea·lizes
To articulate (a sound such as a dental fricative or stop) with an accompanying constriction of the pharynx.
References in periodicals archive ?
"Parameters of Emphasis: Autosegmental Analyses of Pharyngealization in Four Languages." Journal of Afroasiatic Languages 2: 73-97.
nasalization, retroflexion and pharyngealization), but is much less frequent than on consonants; hence it was not investigated in this study.
In Shilha (256, Berber, Afro-Asiatic) pharyngealization occurs on all nongeminate dental/alveolars--except for /n/--as well as on the nongeminate velar voiceless stop, but not on the other nongeminate voiceless stops.
In this language, all consonants except the ones with pharyngealization and the central approximants /j/ and /w/ (neither of which classes are shown in [18]), can occur either as a singleton or as a geminate.
As we saw, in Shilha pharyngealization occurs on all nongeminate dental/alveolars except for /n/ as well as on nongeminate velar voiceless stops.
LAB = labialization PAL = palatalization VEL = velarization PHA = pharyngealization ASP = aspiration PRN = prenasalization NAS = nasalization PRA = preaspiration BRV = breathy voicing BRR = breathy release LAR = laryngealization EJE = ejectivity GLO = glottalization
3 Though the published form of this paper would not have been available to Norman when he was preparing his article for JAOS, it was presented orally at the 25th International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Language and Linguistics, University of California, Berkeley, October 14-18, 1992, at which he also presented a preliminary version of his paper on "Pharyngealization in Early Chinese."
One plausible feature to account for the blocking of palatalization is pharyngealization. In the case of syllables having retroflex initials, retroflexion - that is, the retraction of the apex of the tongue to the post-alveolar or palatal region - would have the same effect.
They were characterized by a syllabic feature of pharyngealization in Early Chinese.
In the case of the guttural initials, *k, *kh, *g, *x, and *ng pharyngealization would have had the effect of creating uvulars: *'kan would have been pronounced [qan].
I do not, however, identify this retroflex element with a particular initial, as most of my predecessors have, but regard it, like the apostrophe denoting pharyngealization, to be a marker of one of the major syllable types.(12) This, of course, does not role out the possibility or even the probability that it may have originated from one or more segments found in the initials of a prior stage.