Uncovering the history of the Permian, and in some aspects, the Triassic, has historically proven more challenging than of any of the other geological periods of the Phanerozoic
Laznicka, P., 1985, Empirical metallogeny, depositional environments, lithologic associations and metallic ores, Volume 1, Phanerozoic
environments, associations and deposits: Developments in economic geology 19: Elsevier Science, New York, 1758 p.
(2001): A critic of Phanerozoic
climatic models involving changes in the C[O.sup.2] content of the atmosphere.
The record of climate variations during the Phanerozoic
In: Walliser, O., (ed.): Global events and event stratigraphy in the Phanerozoic
Reef Patterns (Kiessling, W., Flugel, E.
stromatolites; case histories, 209-229, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Although ultimate causes are still being debated (e.g., Courtillot and Renne, 2003), the two largest Phanerozoic
extinction events, the Permo-Triassic and K-T boundaries, overlap in time or immediately follow the extrusion of some of the largest continental flood basalt sequences, the Siberian (e.g., Kamo et al., 2003) and Deccan (Hofmann et al., 2000) traps, respectively.
The lower part of the Upper Ordovician contains numerous altered volcanic ash layers in the Baltoscandian area, amongst them the unusually thick socalled Kinnekulle Bentonite, which represents one of the largest eruptions that has ever taken place during the Phanerozoic
(Huff et al.
The K/Pg boundary marks one of the largest mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic
, but survival rates of different groups of marine organisms varied with habitat (Peryt et al, 2002).
As a result of the excellent observed reflectivity, a number of major reflection styles and geometries can be discerned, and compare favorably with orogenic geometries seen in Phanerozoic
orogens (Beaumont and Quinlan, 1994).
Negative carbon isotope excursions in the Phanerozoic
often reflect short-term events and their causes and significance are debated, because this would require a fast and volumetrically substantial input of isotopically light carbon into the ocean-atmospheric system.