The petro-diesel and surfactant blends were prepared by mixing a specified volume (ppm) of monoolein ((1-(cis-9-Octadecenoy[GAMMA])-rac-glycerol, density of 969 kg/[m.sup.3]), Sigma Aldrich UK) in the reference grade diesel (Mi), where i = the volume fraction of monoolein (v/v) x 1,000,000.
The water content measurements (Figure 5) reflect the fact that biodiesel has more affinity for water than petro-diesel. For example, water contents of 49.13 [+ or -] 2.79 ppm (v/v) and 403.94 [+ or -] 24.89 ppm (v/v) were measured for the REF and B100 fuels, respectively, which is in agreement with the findings in the literature [15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 36, 37].
et al., "Moisture Absorption in Biodiesel and Its Petro-Diesel Blends," Applied Engineering in Agriculture 23(1):71-76, 2007.
The produced biodiesel has acceptable cold flow properties pour point PP -2[degrees]C and cloud point 1[degrees]C and is characterized by lower CV (38.15-35.55 MJ/kg, resp.) relevant to that of the Egyptian petro-diesel sample (45.49 MJ/kg).
The water content of the produced biodiesel is higher than that of the Egyptian petro-diesel sample recording 312-300 and 84 ppm, respectively.
The higher flash point of thermally obtained biodiesel means that its storage, handling and transportation are safer than catalytically obtained biodiesel and petro-diesel. The ash contents of catalytically obtained biodiesel is higher than petrobased diesel, which mean that biodiesel contains more mineral matter compared with that of petroleum diesel.
The physico- chemical characteristics of the biodiesel produced in the presence of H 2 SO 4 catalysts are very close to those of petro-diesel. The UV/visible and FT-IR studied showed that the obtained biodiesel consists of aliphatic, olifinic and aromatic hydrocarbons along with some fatty acids.
Biodiesel has a list of advantages which are as follows; (i) fossil fuel alternative, which reduces dependence on foreign import of petro-diesel
or fossil fuel (ii) Achieve the target of renewable energy of European Union (iii) Balance energy crisis (iv) Reduces green house gasses emissions (v) Reduces harmful emissions (vi) Is environment friendly fuel (Vicente et al., 2011).
It has been calculated that in order for a crop such as soybean or palm to yield enough oil capable of replacing petro-diesel
completely a very large percentage of farmlands would be required.
Biodiesel requires minimal new infrastructure, merely the switchover of a storage tank or public pump from petro-diesel.
Biodiesel is significantly less polluting than petro-diesel. Of the three major problems with diesel exhaust, biodiesel solves two.