persistent vegetative state

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state

 [stāt]
condition or situation.
alpha state the state of relaxation and peaceful awakefulness associated with prominent alpha brain wave activity.
anxiety state the condition of experiencing undue anxiety, as in anxiety disorders.
excited state the condition of a nucleus, atom, or molecule produced by the addition of energy to the system as the result of absorption of photons or of inelastic collisions with other particles or systems.
ground state the condition of lowest energy of a nucleus, atom, or molecule.
persistent vegetative state a condition of profound nonresponsiveness in the wakeful state caused by brain damage at whatever level and characterized by a nonfunctioning cerebral cortex, the absence of any discernible adaptive response to the external environment, akinesia, mutism, and inability to signal; the electroencephalogram may be isoelectric or show abnormal activity. Vegetative states raise ethical questions regarding appropriate care, use of resources, and allowing a patient to die.
refractory state a condition of subnormal excitability of muscle and nerve following excitation.
resting state the physiologic condition achieved by complete bed rest for at least 1 hour.
steady state dynamic equilibrium.

persistent vegetative state (PVS),

vegetative state (q.v.) of prolonged duration (defined in different sources as duration of longer than 1 month, 1 year, or 2 years); usually permanent.
See also: vegetative.

persistent vegetative state

Choice in dying A condition caused by injury, disease or illness in which a Pt has suffered a loss of consciousness, with no behavioral evidence of awareness of self or surroundings in a learned manner, other than reflex activity of muscles and nerves for low level conditioned response, and from which to a reasonable degree of medical probability, there can be no recovery; PVS is characterized by a prolonged loss of upper cortical function that may follow acute–eg, infections, toxins, trauma, or vascular events, or chronic–eg, degenerative events; in PVS, Pt is bed-ridden, nutritional support is completely passive, either parenteral or by NG tube; PVS Pts do not require respiratory support or circulatory assistance for survival and are in a state of chronic wakefulness which may be accompanied by spontaneous eye opening, grunts or screams, brief smiles, sporadic movement of facial muscles and limbs; while the eyes blink upon stimulation, they do not do so in response to visual threats; some Pts chew or clamp their teeth; urinary and fecal incontinence is universal; recovery occurs within the 1st month–if at all, recovery is rare beyond the 3rd month. See Advanced directives, DNR, Harvard criteria, Living will, Quinlan. Cf Procurement.
Persistent vegetative state–criteria
1.  No evidence of awareness of environment; inability to interact with others
.
2.  No evidence of sustained, reproducible, purposeful, or voluntary behavioral responses to visual, tactile, auditory, or noxious stimuli
.
3.  No evidence of language comprehension or expression
.
4.  Intermittent wakefulness manifested by the presence of sleep-wake cycles
.
5.  Sufficiently preserved hypothalamic and brain-stem autonomic functions to permit survival with medical and nursing care
.
6.  Bowel and bladder incontinence
.
7. Variably preserved cranial nerve reflexes (pupillary, oculocephalic, corneal, vestibulo-ocular, gag) and spinal reflexes
.

per·sis·tent ve·ge·ta·tive state

(PVS) (pĕr-sis'tĕnt vej'ĕ-tā-tiv stāt)
Vegetative state of prolonged duration (defined in different sources as duration of longer than 1 month, 1 year, or 2 years); usually permanent.
See also: vegetative

persistent vegetative state

A condition caused by diffuse lesions of the thalami, the cortical neurons or of the white matter tracts that connect them. The disorder has proved difficult to define because of uncertainties as to the real meaning of ‘consciousness’, ‘awareness’ and ‘wakefulness’. Patients in a persistent vegetative state can breathe without mechanical assistance. Heart, kidney and intestinal functions are normal and the bladder and bowels empty automatically. At times they appear to be awake. They will respond to painful stimuli by opening their eyes, moving their limbs, breathing more quickly, and occasionally grimacing. The type and degree of brain damage indicates, however, that they cannot perform any of the higher neurological or mental functions known to be essential for any mental processes or appreciation of their situation.

per·sis·tent ve·ge·ta·tive state

(pĕr-sis'tĕnt vej'ĕ-tā-tiv stāt)
Condition of a patient of prolonged duration (defined in different sources as duration of longer than 1 month, 1 year, or 2 years); usually permanent.
References in periodicals archive ?
The permanent vegetative state: guidance on diagnosis and management.
This was declared, by the Supreme Court of India in 2011 as a means to legally withdraw life support in patients who are in a permanent vegetative state. Active euthanasia is however still illegal and this includes using lethal compounds to end a person's life.
Recalling the case of Aruna Shanbaug, he added, "This issue of passive euthanasia was considered by the Supreme Court in Aruna Shanbaug's case a few years ago and a two judge bench of the Supreme Court had held that passive Euthanasia is perfectly legal, which means that like Aruna Shanbaug who was in a permanent vegetative state, her next of kin or her guardians had the right to direct the hospital and the doctors to withdraw her life support systems." ( ANI )
The brutal attack left her comatose with severe brain damage putting her into a permanent vegetative state. [2] Since then she has been taken care of by the hospital staff after being abandoned by her family.
THE DEFENSE The plaintiff was in a permanent vegetative state with periodic moments of cognition and attempts were being made to wean her from a tracheostomy tube.
For every child who drowns, another four children receive emergency care for non-fatal submersion injuries, which can result in brain damage and long-term disabilities including memory problems, learning disabilities and permanent loss of basic functioning, that is, a permanent vegetative state.
And four days after the incident on August 19, 2009, Adam's parents, Vicky and Steven made the agonising decision to turn off the toddler's life support machine after doctors revealed he was likely to be in a 'permanent vegetative state'.
Among these are sterilization, abortion, caesarean section, feeding, religious objections to treatment, permanent vegetative state, and suicide.
New evidence suggests that a few patients diagnosed as being in a permanent vegetative state (PVS) or minimally conscious state (MCS)--conditions associated with severe brain injury and an absence of behavioral responses to external events--show signs on fMRI of reactivity to noxious stimuli and even to spoken words.
The 22-year-old from Anglesey needed emergency brain surgery at Walton Hospital in Liverpool with doctors warning mum Linda Jones he would die or be left in a permanent vegetative state.
The bishops sought guidance during the Terri Schiavo controversy on whether or not the provision of artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) is morally obligatory for a patient in a permanent vegetative state (PVS).

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