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Since then, this technique has been increasingly used in other causes of pericardial effusion, such as inflammatory or neoplastic disease, (4,6) pericardial tamponade following coronary artery bypass graft or heart transplantation, (7,16) and in the acute setting for the assessment of cardiac injury after penetrating trauma.
Migration of the centrally placed venous lines leading to potential complications such as mediastinal haematoma (1), pericardial tamponade (2) and pleural effusion (3) have been reported.
Third, our patient had a purulent pericardial infection yet had no symptoms or signs of pericardial infection, by history or clinical examination, resembling acute pericarditis or pericardial tamponade.
Pericardial tamponade secondary to thrombosis in the mediastinum required chest exploration immediately after surgery.
The subxyphoid pericardial window should be used to confirm the diagnosis of pericardial tamponade in stable patients if results of ultrasonography or echocardiography are equivocal.