Nicholson, "The role of perfluorocarbon
in organ preservation," Transplantation, vol.
Herein, the USCA were composed of the lipid encapsulated non gaseous, perfluorocarbon
emulsion that utilizes a triphasic targeting approach based upon the interaction of avidin and biotin molecules as shown in figure 3.
The lungs are filled with PFC to a volume equivalent to the functional residual capacity (FRC), approximately 30 ml/kg and a "liquid ventilator" is used to generate tidal breathing with perfluorocarbon
. Optimal C[O.sub.2] clearance is achieved when ventilation is performed at a rate of 4-5 breaths/minute.
There were several attempts to create alternative blood substitutes based on perfluorocarbon
emulsions in order to avoid the intoxication by hemoglobin-containing blood substitutes (Geyer, 1973; Naito and Yokoyama, 1975; Riess, 1991; Shumakov et al., 1993).
The gases covered by the rule include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons
(PFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and other fluorinated gases, including nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) and hydrofluorinated ethers (HFE).
All major industrial emitters of C[O.sub.2] are to be brought under the ETS eventually, and the scheme will also include greenhouse gases other than C[O.sub.2]--nitrous oxide and perfluorocarbons
The EPA found that high concentrations of six gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons
, and sulfur hexafluoride) due to human activities have caused increases in average temperatures and other climate changes.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on April 17 issued a proposed finding that six greenhouse Rases--C[O.sub.2], methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons
and sulfur hexafluoride--are air pollutants as defined by the Clean Air Act.
These gases include C[O.sub.2], methane, N[O.sub.2], HC, perfluorocarbons
and sulfur hexafluoride.
In addition to CO2, EPA identified five other gases--Methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons
and sulfur hexafluoride--that it said are contributing to global warming.
CO2 makes up some 80 percent of the world's greenhouse gases, but five others--nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons
, sulphur hexafluoride and methane--also contribute.
The EPA said five other greenhouse gases also endanger health and contribute to global warming - methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons
, and sulfur hexafluoride.