penicillin

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penicillin

 [pen″ĭ-sil´in]
any of a large group of natural or semisynthetic antibacterial antibiotics derived directly or indirectly from strains of fungi of the genus Penicillium and other soil-inhabiting fungi grown on special culture media. Penicillins exert a bacteriocidal as well as a bacteriostatic effect on susceptible bacteria by interfering with the final stages of the synthesis of peptidoglycan, a substance in the bacterial cell wall. Despite their relatively low toxicity for the host, they are active against many bacteria, especially gram-positive pathogens (streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci); clostridia; certain gram-negative forms (gonococci and meningococci); certain spirochetes (Treponema pallidum and T. pertenue); and certain fungi. Certain strains of some target species, for example staphylococci, secrete the enzyme penicillinase, which inactivates penicillin and confers resistance to the antibiotic. Some of the newer penicillins, such as methicillin, are more effective against penicillinase-producing organisms. A class of extended-spectrum penicillins includes piperacillin and mezlocillin.

Penicillin is administered intramuscularly, orally, in liquid or tablet form, and topically in ointments. Oral administration requires larger doses of the drug because absorption is incomplete. Allergic reactions occur in some persons. The reaction may be slight—a stinging or burning sensation at the site of injection—or it can be more serious—severe dermatitis or even anaphylactic shock, which may be fatal.
penicillin G the most widely used penicillin, used principally in the treatment of infections due to gram-positive organisms, gram-negative cocci, Treponema pallidum and Actinomyces israelii. The usual forms are salts such as penicillin benzathine, potassium, procaine, or sodium. Called also benzylpenicillin.
penicillin V a biosynthetically or semisynthetically produced antibiotic similar to penicillin g, used orally in the form of the benzathine or potassium salt for mild to moderately severe infections due to susceptible gram-positive bacteria.

pen·i·cil·lin

(pen'i-sil'in),
1. Originally, an antibiotic substance obtained from cultures of the molds Penicillium notatum or P. chrysogenum; interferes with cell wall synthesis in bacteria.
2. One of a family of natural or synthetic variants of penicillic acid. They are mainly bactericidal, are especially active against gram-positive organisms, and, with the exception of hypersensitivity reactions, show a particularly low toxic action on animal tissue.
[see penicillus]

penicillin

(pĕn′ĭ-sĭl′ĭn)
n.
1. An antibiotic drug obtained from molds especially of the genus Penicillium or produced synthetically, available in various preparations and usually used to treat infections caused by gram-positive bacteria.
2. Any of a group of broad-spectrum antibiotic drugs, synthetic or semisynthetic, that are derived from penicillin.

penicillin

Infectious disease An antibiotic that inhibits crosslinking of peptidoglycan chains in bacterial cell walls; bacteria growing in penicillin synthesize weak cell walls, causing them to burst due to the high osmotic pressure. See Ampicillin.

pen·i·cil·lin

(pen'i-sil'in)
1. Originally, an antibiotic substance obtained from cultures of the molds Penicillium notatum or P. chrysogenum; interferes with cell wall synthesis in bacteria.
2. One of a family of natural or synthetic variants of penicillic acid. They are mainly bactericidal, are especially active against gram-positive organisms, and, with the exception of hypersensitivity reactions, show a particularly low toxic action on animal tissue.

penicillin

an antibiotic produced by the FUNGUS Penicillium that is toxic to a number of bacteria, both pathogenic and nonpathogenic. In 1928 it was observed by Sir Alexander FLEMING that the FUNGUS inhibited growth of bacteria, and that a substance extracted from it still had this antibiotic property

antibiotic 

1. Pertaining to the ability to destroy or inhibit other living organisms.
2. A substance derived from a mould or bacterium, or produced synthetically, that destroys (bactericidal) or inhibits the growth (bacteriostatic) of other microorganisms and is thus used to treat infections. Some substances have a narrow spectrum of activity whereas others act against a wide range of both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms (broad-spectrum antibiotics). Antibiotics can be classified into several groups according to their mode of action on or within bacteria: (1) Drugs inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis, such as bacitracin, vancomycin and the β-lactams based agents (e.g. penicillin, cephalosporins (e.g. ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime). (2) Drugs affecting the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, such as polymyxin B sulfate and gramicidin. (3) Drugs inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, such as aminoglycosides (e.g. amikacin sulfate, framycetin sulfate, gentamicin, neomycin sulfate and tobramycin), tetracyclines, macrolides (e.g. erythromycin and azithromycin) and chloramphenicol. (4) Drugs inhibiting the intermediate metabolism of bacteria, such as sulfonamides (e.g. sulfacetamide sodium) and trimethoprim. (5) Drugs inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis, such as nalixidic acid and fluoroquinolones (e.g. ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin). (6) Other antibiotics such as fusidic acid, the diamidines, such as propamidine isethionate and dibrompropamidine. Syn. antibacterial. See antiinflammatory drug; fusidic acid.

pen·i·cil·lin

(pen'i-sil'in)
One of a family of natural or synthetic variants of penicillic acid; mainly bactericidal, are especially active against gram-positive organisms, and, with the exception of hypersensitivity reactions, show a particularly low toxic action on animal tissue.

Patient discussion about penicillin

Q. is it possible to drink alcohol during taking penicillin antibiotic?

A. i know that it's probably bad to take antibiotics with alcohol but couldn't remember why. so i looked you question up until i found a Doctor's answer to it-
http://medical.justanswer.com/dentist/1c5dz-okay-drink-alcohol-penicillin

More discussions about penicillin