peer review

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peer review

 
1. a basic component of a quality assurance program in which the results of health care given to a specific patient population are evaluated according to health-wellness outcome criteria established by peers of the professionals delivering the care. Peer review is focused on the patient and on the results of care given by a group of professionals rather than on individual professional practitioners. Review by peer groups is promoted by professional organizations as a means of maintaining standards of care. Retrospective review critically evaluates the results of work that has been completed; it is done for purposes of improving future practice. The source of data is medical records which document the full continuum of care provided and each patient's response to that care. Concurrent review takes place at the time the care is being given. It critically examines each patient's progress toward desired health-wellness outcomes. Sources of data for concurrent review are the patient's record and interview, observation, and inspection of the patient. A major advantage of concurrent review is that it provides the opportunity to improve care so that patients benefit from the review and recommended changes in ongoing care.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the systematic evaluation of a peer's performance compared with professional standards of practice.
3. Evaluation of a manuscript or research proposal by professional colleagues.

peer re·view

(pēr rē-vyū'),
Process of evaluating research proposals, manuscripts submitted for publication, and abstracts submitted for presentation at a scientific meeting, whereby these are judged for technical and scientific merit by other scientists in the same field.

peer review1

an appraisal by professional coworkers of equal status of the way an individual health professional conducts practice, education, or research. The appraisal uses accepted standards as measures against which performance is weighed. See also Professional Standards Review Organization.

peer review2

a nursing intervention from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as systematic evaluation of a peer's performance compared with professional standards of practice. See also Nursing Interventions Classification.

peer review

The objective evaluation of the quality of a physician's or a scientist's performance by colleagues Medtalk The evaluation of a practitioner's professional performance, including identification of opportunities for improving the quality, necessity, and appropriateness–suitability of care; peer review organizations–PROs in the US contract with the CMS, formerly HCFA. See Peer-reviewed journal, Peer review organization.

peer re·view

(pēr rĕ-vyū')
Assessment of research proposals, manuscripts submitted for publication, or a physician's clinical practice by other physicians or scientists in the same field.

peer re·view

(pēr rĕ-vyū')
Assessment of research proposals, manuscripts submitted for publication, or a physician's clinical practice by other physicians or scientists in the same field.

peer review,

n 1. a retrospective consideration or an examination by one or more individuals of equal standing or rank.
n 2. a process established to provide for review by licensed dental professionals of the care by a dental professional for a single patient; disputes regarding fees; cases submitted by carriers and initiated by patients or dental professionals; and quality of care and appropriateness of treatment.
peer review organization (PRO),
n an organization established by an amendment of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 (TEFRA) to provide for the review of medical services furnished primarily in a hospital setting or in conjunction with care provided under the Medicare and Medicaid programs. In addition to their review and monitoring functions, these entities can invoke sanctions, penalties, or other corrective actions for noncompliance in organization standards.
peer review system,
n a professionally sponsored and operated system for the rendering of professional judgment on disagreements between or among dental professionals, patients, or fiscal intermediaries, respecting quality of care and related matters.

peer review

judgments of other scientists who work in the same field on the merits of papers submitted for publication, applications for reseach funding,
References in periodicals archive ?
As opposed to state medical peer-review statutes that typically include three distinct elements protecting the peer-review process, HCQIA only provides immunity.
United States, (42) the United States District Court for the Western District of New York declined to extend the forum state's medical peer-review privilege to a federal question case arising under the Federal Tort Claims Act ("FTCA").
EEOC, (48) which is the only Supreme Court case that addresses a peer-review privilege, and its context was academic peer review.
Analysis of the Medical Peer-Review Privilege by Circuit Courts of Appeals
Although the Supreme Court has not addressed the peer-review privilege as it relates to the medical practice, a number of the federal circuit courts of appeals have considered the issue, most recently in the Eleventh Circuit.
The Eleventh Circuit arrived at a different conclusion concerning a healthcare entity's use of a state medical peer-review privilege in a federal discrimination case.
66) The Seventh Circuit was the first to consider the privilege and, similar to the Eleventh Circuit, concluded that the public interests in enforcing federal antitrust law were "too strong to permit the exclusion of relevant and possibly crucial evidence"; such a holding implies that the claim arose out of the peer-review process.
Although the Virmani court failed to resolve the confusion generated by federal courts' refusal to recognize or grant a state medical peer-review privilege, the First Circuit Court of Appeals has not yet taken a stance on the issue.
Applying this standard, the court in Marshall compelled disclosure of the material because the plaintiff alleged abuse within the peer-review process itself; the proffered interests for applying the state privilege were lacking.
When both federal and supplemental state claims are raised in the complaint, and the former arises from the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act ("EMTALA"), some federal courts have applied the state's medical peer-review privilege.
THE STANDARD FOR MEDICAL PEER-REVIEW IN FEDERAL COURT
Proponents of the medical peer-review privilege fear that the trend of non-recognition in federal courts will have a negative impact on the effectiveness of the peer-review process.